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Grating

About: Grating is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 54667 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 651016 citation(s). The topic is also known as: grid & metal grid.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We review the recent developments in the area of optical fiber grating sensors, including quasi-distributed strain sensing using Bragg gratings, systems based on chirped gratings, intragrating sensing concepts, long period-based grating sensors, fiber grating laser-based systems, and interferometric sensor systems based on grating reflectors.

3,435 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The contrast thresholds of a variety of grating patterns have been measured over a wide range of spatial frequencies and the results show clear patterns of uniformity in the response to grating noise.
Abstract: 1. The contrast thresholds of a variety of grating patterns have been measured over a wide range of spatial frequencies.2. Contrast thresholds for the detection of gratings whose luminance profiles are sine, square, rectangular or saw-tooth waves can be simply related using Fourier theory.3. Over a wide range of spatial frequencies the contrast threshold of a grating is determined only by the amplitude of the fundamental Fourier component of its wave form.4. Gratings of complex wave form cannot be distinguished from sine-wave gratings until their contrast has been raised to a level at which the higher harmonic components reach their independent threshold.5. These findings can be explained by the existence within the nervous system of linearly operating independent mechanisms selectively sensitive to limited ranges of spatial frequencies.

2,960 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique for describing the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures is reviewed. Formulations for a stable and efficient numerical implementation of the analysis technique are presented for one-dimensional binary gratings for both TE and TM polarization and for the general case of conical diffraction. It is shown that by exploitation of the symmetry of the diffraction problem a very efficient formulation, with up to an order-of-magnitude improvement in the numerical efficiency, is produced. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is shown to be inherently stable. The sources of potential numerical problems associated with underflow and overflow, inherent in digital calculations, are presented. A formulation that anticipates and preempts these instability problems is presented. The calculated diffraction efficiencies for dielectric gratings are shown to converge to the correct value with an increasing number of space harmonics over a wide range of parameters, including very deep gratings. The effect of the number of harmonics on the convergence of the diffraction efficiencies is investigated. More field harmonics are shown to be required for the convergence of gratings with larger grating periods, deeper gratings, TM polarization, and conical diffraction.

2,270 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A rigorous coupled-wave approach is used to analyze diffraction by general planar gratings bounded by two different media. The grating fringes may have any orientation (slanted or unslanted) with respect to the grating surfaces. The analysis is based on a state-variables representation and results in a unifying, easily computer-implementable matrix formulation of the general planar-grating diffraction problem. Accurate diffraction characteristics are presented for the first time to the authors’ knowledge for general slanted gratings. This present rigorous formulation is compared with rigorous modal theory, approximate two-wave modal theory, approximate multiwave coupled-wave theory, and approximate two-wave coupled-wave theory. Typical errors in the diffraction characteristics introduced by these various approximate theories are evaluated for transmission, slanted, and reflection gratings. Inclusion of higher-order waves in a theory is important for obtaining accurate predictions when forward-diffracted orders are dominant (transmission-grating behavior). Conversely, when backward-diffracted orders dominate (reflection-grating behavior), second derivatives of the field amplitudes and boundary diffraction need to be included to produce accurate results.

2,078 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1978-Ferroelectrics
Abstract: The non-linear theory of the self-diffraction on the light induced grating of refractive index in electrooptic crystals is developed. The intensities of the diffracted beams, the diffraction efficiency, and the shape of the surfaces of equal index change are calculated analytically for saturation holograms.Holographic storage in nominally pure reduced crystals of LiNbO3 is studied experimentally. It is shown that the developed theory in diffusion approximation satisfactorily describes the experimental data.

1,512 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202228
20211,114
20202,011
20192,519
20182,435
20172,389

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Ian Bennion

110 papers, 2.3K citations

Pavel Cheben

96 papers, 3.1K citations

Shogo Ura

66 papers, 623 citations

Connie J. Chang-Hasnain

64 papers, 2.1K citations

Changhe Zhou

63 papers, 1K citations