Topic

# Gravity (chemistry)

About: Gravity (chemistry) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23083 publications have been published within this topic receiving 317612 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

•

14 Nov 2013

TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe how the Ocean-Atmosphere system is driven by transfer of properties between the atmosphere and the ocean. But they do not consider the effects of side boundaries.

Abstract: How the Ocean--Atmosphere System Is Driven. Transfer of Properties between Atmosphere and Ocean. Properties of a Fluid at Rest. Equations Satisfied by a Moving Fluid. Adjustment under Gravity in a Nonrotating System. Adjustment under Gravity of a Density-Stratified Fluid. Effect of Rotation. Gravity Waves in a Rotating Fluid. Forced Motion. Effects of Side Boundaries. The Tropics. Mid-Latitudes. Instabilities, Fronts, and the General Circulation. Units and Their SI Equivalents. Useful Values. Properties of Seawater. Properties of Moist Air. A List of Atlases and Data Sources. References. Index.

5,750 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, a method that consistently and efficiently estimates a theoretical gravity equation and correctly calculates the comparative statics of trade frictions was developed to solve the famous McCallum border puzzle.

Abstract: Gravity equations have been widely used to infer trade flow effects of various institutional arrangements. We show that estimated gravity equations do not have a theoretical foundation. This implies both that estimation suffers from omitted variables bias and that comparative statics analysis is unfounded. We develop a method that (i) consistently and efficiently estimates a theoretical gravity equation and (ii) correctly calculates the comparative statics of trade frictions. We apply the method to solve the famous McCallum border puzzle. Applying our method, we find that national borders reduce trade between industrialized countries by moderate amounts of 20-50 percent.

4,997 citations

•

01 Jan 1995TL;DR: In this article, the potential of the geomagnetic field has been studied in vector calculus, and the results of the potential have been shown to be equivalent to the conversion of units.

Abstract: Introduction 1. The potential 2. Consequences of the potential 3. Newtonian potential 4. Magnetic potential 5. Magnetization 6. Spherical harmonic analysis 7. Regional gravity fields 8. The geomagnetic field 9. Forward method 10. Inverse method 11. Fourier-domain modeling 12. Transformations A. Review of vector calculus B. Subroutines C. Review of sampling theory D. Conversion of units.

2,452 citations

••

TL;DR: A modified gravity, which eliminates the need for dark energy and which seems to be stable, is considered in this article, where the terms with positive powers of curvature support the inflationary epoch while the terms that serve as effective dark energy, supporting current cosmic acceleration.

Abstract: A modified gravity, which eliminates the need for dark energy and which seems to be stable, is considered. The terms with positive powers of curvature support the inflationary epoch while the terms with negative powers of curvature serve as effective dark energy, supporting current cosmic acceleration. The equivalent scalar-tensor gravity may be compatible with the simplest solar system experiments.

2,100 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, a combination of high-density data from the dense mapping phases of Geosat and ERS 1 along with lower-density but higher-accuracy profiles from their repeat orbit phases is used to construct gravity anomalies from the two vertical deflection grids.

Abstract: Closely spaced satellite altimeter profiles collected during the Geosat Geodetic Mission (-6 km) and the ERS 1 Geodetic Phase (8 km) are easily converted to grids of vertical gravity gradient and gravity anomaly. The long-wavelength radial orbit error is suppressed below the noise level of the altimeter by taking the along-track derivative of each profile. Ascending and descending slope profiles are then interpolated onto separate uniform grids. These four grids are combined to form comparable grids of east and north vertical deflection using an iteration scheme that interpolates data gaps with minimum curvature. The vertical gravity gradient is calculated directly from the derivatives of the vertical deflection grids, while Fourier analysis is required to construct gravity anomalies from the two vertical deflection grids. These techniques are applied to a combination of high-density data from the dense mapping phases of Geosat and ERS 1 along with lower-density but higher-accuracy profiles from their repeat orbit phases. A comparison with shipboard gravity data shows the accuracy of the satellite- derived gravity anomaly is about 4-7 mGal for random ship tracks. The accuracy improves to 3 mGal when the ship track follows a Geosat Exact Repeat Mission track line. These data provide the first view of the ocean floor structures in many remote areas of the Earth. Some applications include inertial navigation, prediction of seafloor depth, planning shipboard surveys, plate tectonics, isostasy of volcanoes and spreading ridges, and petroleum exploration.

1,695 citations