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Greenhouse gas

About: Greenhouse gas is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 44952 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1311462 citation(s). The topic is also known as: GHG. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1151861
29 Feb 2008-Science
Abstract: Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products. more

Topics: Sustainable biofuel (60%), Low-carbon fuel standard (60%), Greenhouse gas (57%) more

4,518 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Jun 1996-
Abstract: This extensive report entitled “Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change” is the most comprehensive and up-to-date assessment available for scientific understanding of human influences on the past present and future climate. Its aim is to provide objective information on which to base global climate change that will ultimately meet the aim of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The report includes an overview of the factors governing climate and climate change and quantification of the sources of globally important greenhouse gases and other pollutants arising from human activities. A review of the chemical and biological processes governing their removal from the atmosphere is presented. Also included is an assessment of recent trends in climate during the industrial era which has witnessed the ever-growing impact of human activities on the global environment. The strengths and weaknesses of various climate mathematical models used by researchers for understanding the past and present climate and for calculating possible future climates are assessed. Furthermore the report discusses research aimed at the detection of human influence on the climate of the last century and presents future change projections in global climate and sea level based on a range of scenarios of future emissions of pollutants due to human activity. Finally a list of research and observational priorities needed to improve scientific understanding in key areas is presented. more

Topics: Political economy of climate change (70%), Global warming (66%), Climate change (64%) more

4,361 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1116437108
Abstract: Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100–110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ∼1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO2-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ∼3 Gt y−1 and N use ∼250 Mt y−1 by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ∼0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ∼1 Gt y−1, and global N use of ∼225 Mt y−1. Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts. more

Topics: Land use, land-use change and forestry (53%), Food security (52%), Greenhouse gas (52%) more

4,192 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1152747
Joseph Fargione1, Jason Hill2, David Tilman2, Stephen Polasky2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
29 Feb 2008-Science
Abstract: Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to lowcarbon fuels a high priority. Biofuels are a potential lowcarbon energy source, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on how they are produced. Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food-based biofuels in Brazil, Southeast Asia, and the United States creates a ‘biofuel carbon debt’ by releasing 17 to 420 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions these biofuels provide by displacing fossil fuels. In contrast, biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands planted with perennials incur little or no carbon debt and offer immediate and sustained GHG advantages. Demand for alternatives to petroleum is increasing the production of biofuels from food crops such as corn, sugarcane, soybeans and palms. As a result, land in more

Topics: Aviation biofuel (64%), Sustainable biofuel (64%), Low-carbon fuel standard (62%) more

3,716 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Pete Smith

162 papers, 18.9K citations

Bruce A. McCarl

65 papers, 5.3K citations

Detlef P. van Vuuren

60 papers, 7K citations

John M. Reilly

47 papers, 4.4K citations

Richard S.J. Tol

41 papers, 2.1K citations

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