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Grid parity

About: Grid parity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4970 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 115070 citation(s).
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01 Jan 2004-
Abstract: Preface.1 Basic Electric and Magnetic Circuits.1.1 Introduction to Electric Circuits.1.2 Definitions of Key Electrical Quantities.1.3 Idealized Voltage and Current Sources.1.4 Electrical Resistance.1.5 Capacitance.1.6 Magnetic Circuits.1.7 Inductance.1.8 Transformers.2 Fundamentals of Electric Power.2.1 Effective Values of Voltage and Current.2.2 Idealized Components Subjected to Sinusoidal Voltages.2.3 Power Factor.2.4 The Power Triangle and Power Factor Correction.2.5 Three-Wire, Single-Phase Residential Wiring.2.6 Three-Phase Systems.2.7 Power Supplies.2.8 Power Quality.3 The Electric Power Industry.3.1 The Early Pioneers: Edison, Westinghouse, and Insull.3.2 The Electric Utility Industry Today.3.3 Polyphase Synchronous Generators.3.4 Carnot Efficiency for Heat Engines.3.5 Steam-Cycle Power Plants.3.6 Combustion Gas Turbines.3.7 Combined-Cycle Power Plants.3.8 Gas Turbines and Combined-Cycle Cogeneration.3.9 Baseload, Intermediate and Peaking Power Plants.3.10 Transmission and Distribution.3.11 The Regulatory Side of Electric Power.3.12 The Emergence of Competitive Markets.4 Distributed Generation.4.1 Electricity Generation in Transition.4.2 Distributed Generation with Fossil Fuels.4.3 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Technologies.4.4 Biomass for Electricity.4.5 Micro-Hydropower Systems.4.6 Fuel Cells.4.6.7 Electrical Characteristics of Real Fuel Cells.4.6.8 Types of Fuel Cells.4.6.9 Hydrogen Production.5 Economics of Distributed Resources.5.1 Distributed Resources (DR).5.2 Electric Utility Rate Structures.5.3 Energy Economics.5.4 Energy Conservation Supply Curves.5.5 Combined Heat and Power (CHP).5.6 Cooling, Heating, and Cogeneration.5.7 Distributed Benefits.5.8 Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM).6 Wind Power Systems.6.1 Historical Development of Wind Power.6.2 Types of Wind Turbines.6.3 Power in the Wind.6.4 Impact of Tower Height.6.5 Maximum Rotor Efficiency.6.6 Wind Turbine Generators.6.7 Speed Control for Maximum Power.6.8 Average Power in the Wind.6.9 Simple Estimates of Wind Turbine Energy.6.10 Specific Wind Turbine Performance Calculations.6.11 Wind Turbine Economics.7 The Solar Resource.7.1 The Solar Spectrum.7.2 The Earth's Orbit.7.3 Altitude Angle of the Sun at Solar Noon.7.4 Solar Position at any Time of Day.7.5 Sun Path Diagrams for Shading Analysis.7.6 Solar Time and Civil (Clock) Time.7.7 Sunrise and Sunset.7.8 Clear Sky Direct-Beam Radiation.7.9 Total Clear Sky Insolation on a Collecting Surface.7.10 Monthly Clear-Sky Insolation.7.11 Solar Radiation Measurements.7.12 Average Monthly Insolation.8 Photovoltaic Materials and Electrical Characteristics.8.1 Introduction.8.2 Basic Semiconductor Physics.8.3 A Generic Photovoltaic Cell.8.4 From Cells to Modules to Arrays.8.5 The PV I -V Curve Under Standard Test Conditions (STC).8.6 Impacts of Temperature and Insolation on I -V Curves.8.7 Shading impacts on I-V curves.8.8 Crystalline Silicon Technologies.8.9 Thin-Film Photovoltaics.9 Photovoltaic Systems.9.1 Introduction to the Major Photovoltaic System Types.9.2 Current-Voltage Curves for Loads.9.3 Grid-Connected Systems.9.4 Grid-Connected PV System Economics.9.5 Stand-Alone PV Systems.9.6 PV-Powered Water Pumping.APPENDIX A: Useful Conversion Factors.APPENDIX B: Sun-Path Diagrams.APPENDIX C: Hourly Clear-Sky Insolation Tables.APPENDIX D: Monthly Clear-Sky Insolation Tables.APPENDIX E: Solar Insolation Tables byCity.APPENDIX F: Maps of Solar Insolation.Index.

1,821 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Global environmental concerns and the escalating demand for energy, coupled with steady progress in renewable energy technologies, are opening up new opportunities for utilization of renewable energy resources. Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible and clean of all the renewable energy resources till date. The power from sun intercepted by the earth is about 1.8 × 1011 MW, which is many times larger than the present rate of all the energy consumption. Photovoltaic technology is one of the finest ways to harness the solar power. This paper reviews the photovoltaic technology, its power generating capability, the different existing light absorbing materials used, its environmental aspect coupled with a variety of its applications. The different existing performance and reliability evaluation models, sizing and control, grid connection and distribution have also been discussed. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1,217 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: The methodology of properly calculating the levelized cost of electricity for solar PV is reviewed, correcting the misconceptions made in the assumptions found throughout the literature and a template is provided for better reporting of LCOE results for PV needed to influence policy mandates or make invest decisions.
Abstract: As the solar photovoltaic (PV) matures, the economic feasibility of PV projects are increasingly being evaluated using the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) generation in order to be compared to other electricity generation technologies. Unfortunately, there is lack of clarity of reporting assumptions, justifications and degree of completeness in LCOE calculations, which produces widely varying and contradictory results. This paper reviews the methodology of properly calculating the LCOE for solar PV, correcting the misconceptions made in the assumptions found throughout the literature. Then a template is provided for better reporting of LCOE results for PV needed to influence policy mandates or make invest decisions. A numerical example is provided with variable ranges to test sensitivity, allowing for conclusions to be drawn on the most important variables. Grid parity is considered when the LCOE of solar PV is comparable with grid electrical prices of conventional technologies and is the industry target for cost-effectiveness. Given the state of the art in the technology and favorable financing terms it is clear that PV has already obtained grid parity in specific locations and as installed costs continue to decline, grid electricity prices continue to escalate, and industry experience increases, PV will become an increasingly economically advantageous source of electricity over expanding geographical regions.

1,006 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy (namely wind energy and solar PV) may entail new challenges in power systems and more volatility in power prices in liberalized electricity markets. Energy storage can diminish this imbalance, relieving the grid congestion, and promoting distributed generation. The economic implications of grid-scale electrical energy storage technologies are however obscure for the experts, power grid operators, regulators, and power producers. A meticulous techno-economic or cost-benefit analysis of electricity storage systems requires consistent, updated cost data and a holistic cost analysis framework. To this end, this study critically examines the existing literature in the analysis of life cycle costs of utility-scale electricity storage systems, providing an updated database for the cost elements (capital costs, operational and maintenance costs, and replacement costs). Moreover, life cycle costs and levelized cost of electricity delivered by electrical energy storage is analyzed, employing Monte Carlo method to consider uncertainties. The examined energy storage technologies include pumped hydropower storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheel, electrochemical batteries (e.g. lead–acid, NaS, Li-ion, and Ni–Cd), flow batteries (e.g. vanadium-redox), superconducting magnetic energy storage, supercapacitors, and hydrogen energy storage (power to gas technologies). The results illustrate the economy of different storage systems for three main applications: bulk energy storage, T&D support services, and frequency regulation.

1,005 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: As the solar photovoltaic (PV) matures, the economic feasibility of PV projects are increasingly being evaluated using the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) generation in order to be compared to other electricity generation technologies. Unfortunately, there is lack of clarity of reporting assumptions, justifications and degree of completeness in LCOE calculations, which produces widely varying and contradictory results. This paper reviews the methodology of properly calculating the LCOE for solar PV, correcting the misconceptions made in the assumptions found throughout the literature. Then a template is provided for better reporting of LCOE results for PV needed to influence policy mandates or make invest decisions. A numerical example is provided with variable ranges to test sensitivity, allowing for conclusions to be drawn on the most important variables. Grid parity is considered when the LCOE of solar PV is comparable with grid electrical prices of conventional technologies and is the industry target for cost-effectiveness. Given the state of the art in the technology and favorable financing terms it is clear that PV has already obtained grid parity in specific locations and as installed costs continue to decline, grid electricity prices continue to escalate, and industry experience increases, PV will become an increasingly economically advantageous source of electricity over expanding geographical regions.

912 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202134
202025
201933
201849
2017363
2016574

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Paul Denholm

26 papers, 3K citations

Robert Margolis

16 papers, 1.2K citations

Christian Breyer

11 papers, 811 citations

Bri-Mathias Hodge

9 papers, 447 citations

Ahmad Zahedi

9 papers, 309 citations