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# Ground plane

About: Ground plane is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 20107 publications have been published within this topic receiving 259950 citations.

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15 Jan 2002

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the most recent advances in regular-size Dual-Frequency Antennas and their application in a wide range of applications, including: 1.1 Introduction.

Abstract: Preface. 1. Introduction and Overview. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Compact Microstrip Antennas. 1.3 Compact Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 1.4 Compact Dual-Frequency Microstrip Antennas. 1.5 Compact Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 1.6 Compact Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 1.7 Compact Microstrip Antennas with Enhanced Gain. 1.8 Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 1.9 Broadband Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 1.10 Broadband and Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 2. Compact Microstrip Antennas. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Use of a Shorted Patch with a Thin Dielectric Substrate. 2.3 Use of a Meandered Patch. 2.4 Use of a Meandered Ground Plane. 2.5 Use of a Planar Inverted-L Patch. 2.6 Use of an Inverted U-Shaped or Folded Patch. 3. Compact Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Use of a Shorted Patch with a Thick Air Substrate. 3.3 Use of Stacked Shorted Patches. 3.4 Use of Chip-Resistor and Chip-Capacitor Loading Technique. 3.5 Use of a Slot-Loading Technique. 3.6 Use of a Slotted Ground Plane. 4. Compact Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Some Recent Advances in Regular-Size Dual-Frequency Designs. 4.3 Compact Dual-Frequency Operation with Same Polarization Planes. 4.4 Compact Dual-Frequency Operation. 4.5 Dual-Band or Triple-Band PIFA. 4.6 Compact Dual-Polarized Designs. 5. Compact Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Designs with a Cross-Slot of Unequal Arm Lengths. 5.3 Designs with a Y-Shaped Slot of Unequal Arm Lengths. 5.4 Designs with Slits. 5.5 Designs with Spur Lines. 5.6 Designs with Truncated Corners. 5.7 Designs with Peripheral Cuts. 5.8 Designs with a Tuning Stub. 5.9 Designs with a Bent Tuning Stub. 5.10 Compact CP Designs with an Inset Microstrip-Line Feed. 6. Compact Microstrip Antennas with Enhanced Gain. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Compact Microstrip Antennas with High-Permittivity Superstrate. 6.3 Compact Microstrip Antennas with Active Circuitry. 7. Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Use of Additional Microstrip Resonators. 7.3 Microstrip Antennas with an Air Substrate. 7.4 Broadband Slot-Loaded Microstrip Antennas. 7.5 Broadband Microstrip Antennas with an Integrated Reactive Loading. 7.6 Broadband Microstrip Antennas with Reduced Cross-Polarization Radiation. 8. Broadband Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Broadband Dual-Frequency Microstrip Antennas. 8.3 Broadband Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9. Broadband and Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Broadband Single-Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.3 Broadband Two-Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.4 Broadband Four-Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.5 Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. Index.

1,638 citations

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01 Jan 1981

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an approach for the synthesis of a single antenna array from a single-antenna array using a modified version of Taylor's Taylor diagram and a modified Taylor diagram with a modified ring side lobe topography.

Abstract: Foreword to the Revised Edition. Preface to the Revised Edition. Preface. I SOURCE-FIELD RELATIONS SINGLE ANTENNA ELEMENTS. 1 The Far-Field Integrals, Reciprocity, Directivity. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Electrostatics and Magnetostatics in Free Space. 1.3 The Introduction of Dielectric, Magnetic, and Conductive Materials. 1.4 Time-Varying Fields. 1.5 The Retarded Potential Functions. 1.6 Poynting's Theorem. 1.7 The Stratton-Chu Solution. 1.8 Conditions at Infinity. 1.9 Field Values in the Excluded Regions. 1.10 The Retarded Potential Functions: Reprise. 1.11 The Far Field: Type I Antennas. 1.12 The Schelkunoff Equivalence Principle. 1.13 The Far Field: Type IL Antennas. 1.14 The Reciprocity Theorem. 1.15 Equivalence of the Transmitting and Receiving Patterns of an Antenna. 1.16 Directivity and Gain. 1.17 Receiving Cross Section. 1.18 Polarization of the Electric Field. 2 Radiation Patterns of Dipoles, Loops, and Helices. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 The Center-Fed Dipole. 2.3 Images in a Ground Plane. 2.4 A Monopole Above a Ground Plane. 2.5 A Dipole in Front of a Ground Plane. 2.6 The Small Current Loop. 2.7 Traveling Wave Current on a Loop. 2.8 The End-Fire Helix. 3 Radiation Patterns of Horns, Slots and Patch Antennas. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 The Open-Ended Waveguide. 3.3 Radiation from Horns. 3.4 Center-Fed Slot in Large Ground Plane. 3.5 Waveguide-Fed Slots. 3.6 Theory of Waveguide-Fed Slot Radiators. 3.7 Patch Antennas. II ARRAY ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS. 4 Linear Arrays: Analysis. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Pattern Formulas for Arrays with Arbitrary Element Positions. 4.3 Linear Arrays: Preliminaries. 4.4 Schelkunoff's Unit Circle Representation. 5 Linear Arrays: Synthesis. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Sum and Difference Patterns. 5.3 Dolph-Chebyshev Synthesis of Sum Patterns. 5.4 Sum Pattern Beamwidth of Linear Arrays. 5.5 Peak Directivity of the Sum Pattern of a Linear Array. 5.6 A Relation Between Beamwidth and Peak Directivity for Linear Arrays. 5.7 Taylor Synthesis of Sum Patterns. 5.8 Modified Taylor Patterns. 5.9 Sum Patterns with Arbitrary Side Lobe Topography. 5.10 Discretization of a Continuous Line Source Distribution. 5.11 Bayliss Synthesis of Difference Patterns. 5.12 Difference Patterns with Arbitrary Side Lobe Topography. 5.13 Discretization Applied to Difference Patterns. 5.14 Design of Linear Arrays to Produce Null-Free Patterns. 6 Planar Arrays: Analysis and Synthesis. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Rectangular Grid Arrays: Rectangular Boundary and Separable Distribution. 6.3 Circular Taylor Patterns. 6.4 Modified Circular Taylor Patterns: Ring Side Lobes of Individually Arbitrary Heights. 6.5 Modified Circular Taylor Patterns: Undulating Ring Side Lobes. 6.6 Sampling Generalized Taylor Distributions: Rectangular Grid Arrays. 6.7 Sampling Generalized Taylor Distributions: Circular Grid Arrays. 6.8 An Improved Discretizing Technique for Circular Grid Arrays. 6.9 Rectangular Grid Arrays with Rectangular Boundaries: Nonseparable Tseng-Cheng Distributions. 6.10 A Discretizing Technique for Rectangular Grid Arrays. 6.11 Circular Bayliss Patterns. 6.12 Modified Circular Bayliss Patterns. 6.13 The Discretizing Technique Applied to Planar Arrays Excited to Give a Difference Pattern. 6.14 Comparative Performance of Separable and Nonseparable Excitations for Planar Apertures. 6.15 Fourier Integral Representation of the Far Field. III SELF-IMPEDANCE AND MUTUAL IMPEDANCE, FEEDING STRUCTURES. 7 Self-Impedance and Mutual Impedance of Antenna Elements. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 The Current Distribution on an Antenna: General Formulation. 7.3 The Cylindrical Dipole: Arbitrary Cross Section. 7.4 The Cylindrical Dipole: Circular Cross Section, Hallen's Formulation. 7.5 The Method of Moments. 7.6 Solution of Hallen's Integral Equation: Pulse Functions. 7.7 Solution of Halle'n's Integral Equation: Sinusoidal Basis Functions. 7.8 Self-Impedance of Center-Fed Cylindrical Dipoles: Induced EMF Method. 7.9 Self-Impedance of Center-Fed Cylindrical Dipoles: Storer's Variational Solution. 7.10 Self-Impedance of Center-Fed Cylindrical Dipoles: Zeroth and First Order Solutions to Hallen's Integral Equation. 7.11 Self-Impedance of Center-Fed Cylindrical Dipoles: King-Middleton Second-Order Solution. 7.12 Self-Impedance of Center-Fed Strip Dipoles. 7.13 The Derivation of a Formula for the Mutual Impedance Between Slender Dipoles. 7.14 The Exact Field of a Dipole: Sinusoidal Current Distribution. 7.15 Computation of the Mutual Impedance Between Slender Dipoles. 7.16 The Self-Admittance of Center-Fed Slots in a Large Ground Plane: Booker's Relation. 7.17 Arrays of Center-Fed Slots in a Large Ground Plane: Self-Admittance and Mutual Admittance. 7.18 The Self-Impedance of a Patch Antenna. 8 The Design of Feeding Structures for Antenna Elements and Arrays. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Design of a Coaxially Fed Monopole with Large Ground Plane. 8.3 Design of a Balun-Fed Dipole Above a Large Ground Plane. 8.4 Two-Wire-Fed Slots: Open and Cavity-Backed. 8.5 Coaxially Fed Helix Plus Ground Plane. 8.6 The Design of an Endfire Dipole Array. 8.7 Yagi-Uda Type Dipole Arrays: Two Elements. 8.8 Yagi-Uda Type Dipole Arrays: Three or More Elements. 8.9 Frequency-Independent Antennas: Log-Periodic Arrays. 8.10 Ground Plane Backed Linear Dipole Arrays. 8.11 Ground Plane Backed Planar Dipole Arrays. 8.12 The Design of a Scanning Array. 8.13 The Design of Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays: The Concept of Active Slot Admittance (Impedance). 8.14 Arrays of Longitudinal Shunt Slots in a Broad Wall of Rectangular Waveguides: The Basic Design Equations. 8.15 The Design of Linear Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays. 8.16 The Design of Planar Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays. 8.17 Sum and Difference Patterns for Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays Mutual Coupling Included. IV CONTINUOUS APERTURE ANTENNAS. 9 Traveling Wave Antennas. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 The Long Wire Antenna. 9.3 Rhombic and Vee-Antennas. 9.4 Dielectric-Clad Planar Conductors. 9.5 Corrugated Planar Conductors. 9.6 Surface Wave Excitation. 9.7 Surface Wave Antennas. 9.8 Fast Wave Antennas. 9.9 Trough Waveguide Antennas. 9.10 Traveling Wave Arrays of Quasi-Resonant Discretely Spaced Slots [Main Beam at theta0= arccos(beta/k)]. 9.11 Traveling Wave Arrays of Quasi-Resonant Discretely Spaced Slots (Main Beam Near Broadside). 9.12 Frequency Scanned Arrays. 10 Reflectors and Lenses. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Geometrical Optics: The Eikonal Equation. 10.3 Simple Reflectors. 10.4 Aperture Blockage. 10.5 The Design of a Shaped Cylindrical Reflector. 10.6 The Design of a Doubly Curved Reflector. 10.7 Radiation Patterns of Reflector Antennas: The Aperture Field Method. 10.8 Radiation Patterns of Reflector Antennas: The Current Distribution Method. 10.9 Dual Shaped Reflector Systems. 10.10 Single Surface Dielectric Lenses. 10.11 Stepped Lenses. 10.12 Surface Mismatch, Frequency Sensitivity, and Dielectric Loss for Lens Antennas. 10.13 The Far Field of a Dielectric Lens Antenna. 10.14 The Design of a Shaped Cylindrical Lens. 10.15 Artificial Dielectrics: Discs and Strips. 10.16 Artificial Dielectrics: Metal Plate (Constrained) Lenses. 10.17 The Luneburg Lens. APPENDICES. A. Reduction of the Vector Green's Formula for E. B. The Wave Equations for A and D. C. Derivation of the Chebyshev Polynomials. D. A General Expansion of cosm v. E. Approximation to the Magnetic Vector Potential Function for Slender Dipoles. F. Diffraction by Plane Conducting Screens: Babinet's Principle. G. The Far-Field in Cylindrical Coordinates. H. The Utility of a Csc2 theta Pattern. Index.

1,023 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the reflection phase feature of EBG surfaces, which can be used to identify the input-match frequency band inside of which a low profile wire antenna exhibits a good return loss.

Abstract: Mushroom-like electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structures exhibit unique electromagnetic properties that have led to a wide range of electromagnetic device applications. This paper focuses on the reflection phase feature of EBG surfaces: when plane waves normally illuminate an EBG structure, the phase of the reflected field changes continuously from 180/spl deg/ to -180/spl deg/ versus frequency. One important application of this feature is that one can replace a conventional perfect electric conductor (PEC) ground plane with an EBG ground plane for a low profile wire antenna design. For this design, the operational frequency band of an EBG structure is defined as the frequency region within which a low profile wire antenna radiates efficiently, namely, having a good return loss and radiation patterns. The operational frequency band is the overlap of the input-match frequency band and the surface-wave frequency bandgap. It is revealed that the reflection phase curve can be used to identify the input-match frequency band inside of which a low profile wire antenna exhibits a good return loss. The surface-wave frequency bandgap of the EBG surface that helps improve radiation patterns is very close to its input-match frequency band, resulting in an effective operational frequency band. In contrast, a thin grounded slab cannot work efficiently as a ground plane for low profile wire antennas because its surface-wave frequency bandgap and input-match frequency band do not overlap. Parametric studies have been performed to obtain design guidelines for EBG ground planes. Two novel EBG ground planes with interesting electromagnetic features are also presented. The rectangular patch EBG ground plane has a polarization dependent reflection phase and the slotted patch EBG ground plane shows a compact size.

914 citations

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TL;DR: A new technique for feeding printed antennas is described in this paper, where a microstrip antenna on one substrate is coupled to a microstripline feed on another parallel substrate through an aperture in the ground plane which separates the two substrates.

Abstract: A new technique for feeding printed antennas is described A microstrip antenna on one substrate is coupled to a microstripline feed on another parallel substrate through an aperture in the ground plane which separates the two substrates A simple theory explaining the coupling mechanism is presented, as well as measurements of a prototype aperture-fed antenna

832 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the photonic bandgap (PBG) structure for microwave integrated circuits is presented, which is a two-dimensional square lattice with each element consisting of a metal pad and four connecting branches.

Abstract: This paper presents a novel photonic bandgap (PBG) structure for microwave integrated circuits. This new PBG structure is a two-dimensional square lattice with each element consisting of a metal pad and four connecting branches. Experimental results of a microstrip on a substrate with the PEG ground plane displays a broad stopband, as predicted by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Due to the slow-wave effect generated by this unique structure, the period of the PBG lattice is only 0.1/spl lambda//sub 0/ at the cutoff frequency, resulting in the most compact PEG lattice ever achieved. In the passband, the measured slow-wave factor (/spl beta//k/sub 0/) is 1.2-2.4 times higher and insertion loss is at the same level compared to a conventional 50-/spl Omega/ line. This uniplanar compact PBG (UC-PBG) structure can be built using standard planar fabrication techniques without any modification. Several application examples have also been demonstrated, including a nonleaky conductor-backed coplanar waveguide and a compact spurious-free bandpass filter. This UC-PBG structure should find wide applications for high-performance and compact circuit components in microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits.

819 citations