About: Growing season is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11214 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 331886 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Yields increase with temperature but that temperatures above these thresholds are very harmful, suggesting limited historical adaptation of seed varieties or management practices to warmer temperatures because the cross-section includes farmers' adaptations to warmer climates and the time-series does not.
Abstract: The United States produces 41% of the world's corn and 38% of the world's soybeans. These crops comprise two of the four largest sources of caloric energy produced and are thus critical for world food supply. We pair a panel of county-level yields for these two crops, plus cotton (a warmer-weather crop), with a new fine-scale weather dataset that incorporates the whole distribution of temperatures within each day and across all days in the growing season. We find that yields increase with temperature up to 29° C for corn, 30° C for soybeans, and 32° C for cotton but that temperatures above these thresholds are very harmful. The slope of the decline above the optimum is significantly steeper than the incline below it. The same nonlinear and asymmetric relationship is found when we isolate either time-series or cross-sectional variations in temperatures and yields. This suggests limited historical adaptation of seed varieties or management practices to warmer temperatures because the cross-section includes farmers' adaptations to warmer climates and the time-series does not. Holding current growing regions fixed, area-weighted average yields are predicted to decrease by 30–46% before the end of the century under the slowest (B1) warming scenario and decrease by 63–82% under the most rapid warming scenario (A1FI) under the Hadley III model.
Abstract: Forest soil respiration is the sum of heterotrophic (microbes, soil fauna) and auto- trophic (root) respiration. The contribution of each group needs to be understood to evaluate implications of environmental change on soil carbon cycling and sequestration. Three primary methods have been used to distinguish hetero- versus autotrophic soil respiration including: integration of components contributing to in situ forest soil CO2 efflux (i.e., litter, roots, soil), comparison of soils with and without root exclusion, and application of stable or radioactive isotope methods. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages, but isotope based methods provide quantitative answers with the least amount of disturbance to the soil and roots. Pub- lished data from all methods indicate that root/rhizosphere respiration can account for as little as 10 percent to greater than 90 percent of total in situ soil respiration depending on vegetation type and season of the year. Studies which have integrated percent root contribution to total soil respiration throughout an entire year or growing season show mean values of 45.8 and 60.4 percent for forest and nonforest vegetation, respectively. Such average annual values must be extrapolated with caution, however, because the root contribution to total soil respiration is commonly higher during the growing season and lower during the dormant periods of the year. Abbreviations: TScer -t otal soil CO 2 efflux rate; f - fractional root contribution to TS cer; RC - root contribution to TScer
TL;DR: Analysis of data from more than 30 years of observation in Europe finds that spring events, such as leaf unfolding, have advanced by 6 days, whereas autumn events have been delayed by 4.8 days, which means that the average annual growing season has lengthened by 10.8 Days since the early 1960s.
Abstract: Changes in phenology (seasonal plant and animal activity driven by environmental factors) from year to year may be a sensitive and easily observable indicator of changes in the biosphere. We have analysed data from more than 30 years of observation in Europe, and found that spring events, such as leaf unfolding, have advanced by 6 days, whereas autumn events, such as leaf colouring, have been delayed by 4.8 days. This means that the average annual growing season has lengthened by 10.8 days since the early 1960s. These shifts can be attributed to changes in air temperature.
Abstract: The northern high latitudes have warmed by about 0.8°C since the early 1970s, but not all areas have warmed uniformly [Hansen et al., 1999]. There is warming in most of Eurasia, but the warming rate in the United States is smaller than in most of the world, and a slight cooling is observed in the eastern United States over the past 50 years. These changes beg the question, can we detect the biotic response to temperature changes? Here we present results from analyses of a recently developed satellite-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data set for the period July 1981 to December 1999: (1) About 61% of the total vegetated area between 40°N and 70°N in Eurasia shows a persistent increase in growing season NDVI over a broad contiguous swath of land from central Europe through Siberia to the Aldan plateau, where almost 58% (7.3×106 km2) is forests and woodlands; North America, in comparison, shows a fragmented pattern of change in smaller areas notable only in the forests of the southeast and grasslands of the upper Midwest, (2) A larger increase in growing season NDVI magnitude (12% versus 8%) and a longer active growing season (18 versus 12 days) brought about by an early spring and delayed autumn are observed in Eurasia relative to North America, (3) NDVI decreases are observed in parts of Alaska, boreal Canada, and northeastern Asia, possibly due to temperature-induced drought as these regions experienced pronounced warming without a concurrent increase in rainfall [Barber et al., 2000]. We argue that these changes in NDVI reflect changes in biological activity. Statistical analyses indicate that there is a statistically meaningful relation between changes in NDVI and land surface temperature for vegetated areas between 40°N and 70°N. That is, the temporal changes and continental differences in NDVI are consistent with ground-based measurements of temperature, an important determinant of biological activity. Together, these results suggest a photosynthetically vigorous Eurasia relative to North America during the past 2 decades, possibly driven by temperature and precipitation patterns. Our results are in broad agreement with a recent comparative analysis of 1980s and 1990s boreal and temperate forest inventory data [United Nations, 2000].
TL;DR: Observational data and output from 23 global climate models show a high probability that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006.
Abstract: Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.