About: HaCaT is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5071 publications have been published within this topic receiving 121557 citations. The topic is also known as: HaCAT.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The characteristics of the HaCaT cell line clearly document that spontaneous transformation of human adult keratinocytes can occur in vitro and is associated with sequential chromosomal alterations, though not obligatorily linked to major defects in differentiation.
Abstract: In contrast to mouse epidermal cells, human skin keratinocytes are rather resistant to transformation in vitro. Immortalization has been achieved by SV40 but has resulted in cell lines with altered differentiation. We have established a spontaneously transformed human epithelial cell line from adult skin, which maintains full epidermal differentiation capacity. This HaCaT cell line is obviously immortal (greater than 140 passages), has a transformed phenotype in vitro (clonogenic on plastic and in agar) but remains nontumorigenic. Despite the altered and unlimited growth potential, HaCaT cells, similar to normal keratinocytes, reform an orderly structured and differentiated epidermal tissue when transplanted onto nude mice. Differentiation-specific keratins (Nos. 1 and 10) and other markers (involucrin and filaggrin) are expressed and regularly located. Thus, HaCaT is the first permanent epithelial cell line from adult human skin that exhibits normal differentiation and provides a promising tool for studying regulation of keratinization in human cells. On karyotyping this line is aneuploid (initially hypodiploid) with unique stable marker chromosomes indicating monoclonal origin. The identity of the HaCaT line with the tissue of origin was proven by DNA fingerprinting using hypervariable minisatellite probes. This is the first demonstration that the DNA fingerprint pattern is unaffected by long-term cultivation, transformation, and multiple chromosomal alterations, thereby offering a unique possibility for unequivocal identification of human cell lines. The characteristics of the HaCaT cell line clearly document that spontaneous transformation of human adult keratinocytes can occur in vitro and is associated with sequential chromosomal alterations, though not obligatorily linked to major defects in differentiation.
TL;DR: Investigation of adverse effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes indicates that dermal exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress in the skin of exposed workers.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes are new members of carbon allotropes similar to fullerenes and graphite. Because of their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are important for novel applications in the electronics, aerospace, and computer industries. Exposure to graphite and carbon materials has been associated with increased incidence of skin diseases, such as carbon fiber dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, and naevi. We investigated adverse effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). After 18 h of exposure of HaCaT to SWCNT, oxidative stress and cellular toxicity were indicated by formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and loss of cell viability. Exposure to SWCNT also resulted in ultrastructural and morphological changes in cultured skin cells. These data indicate that dermal exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress in the skin of exposed workers.
TL;DR: Green tea may protect against cancer by causing cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis, and needs to be evaluated in human trials.
Abstract: Background and Purpose: The polyphenolic compounds present in green tea show cancer chemopreventive effects in many animal tumor models. Epidemiologic studies have also suggested that green tea consumption might be effective in the prevention of certain human cancers. We investigated the effect of green tea polyphenols and the major constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, on the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) and regulation of cell cycle in human and mouse carcinoma cells. Methods: Human epidermoid carcinoma cells (cell line A431), human carcinoma keratinocyte (cell line HaCaT), human prostate carcinoma cells (cell line DU145), mouse lymphoma cells (cell line L5178Y), and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were used. Apoptosis was assessed by 1) the formation of internucleosomal DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis, 2) confocal microscopy, and 3) flow cytometry after tagging the DNA fragments by fluorescence label. The distribution of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Treatment of A431 cells with green tea polyphenols and its components, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin-3-gallate, resulted in the formation of internucleo-somal DNA fragments, characteristic of apoptosis. Treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate also resulted in apoptosis in HaCaT, L5178Y, and DU145 cells, but not in NHEK. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the findings. The DNA cell cycle analysis showed that in A431 cells, epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment resulted in arrest in the G 0 -G 1 phase of the cell cycle and a dose-dependent apoptosis. Conclusions: Green tea may protect against cancer by causing cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis. It needs to be evaluated in human trials.
TL;DR: UV light directly stimulates CD95 and thereby activates the CD95 pathway to induce apoptosis independently of the natural ligand CD95L, further support the concept that UV light can affect targets at the plasma membrane, thereby even inducing apoptosis.
Abstract: Induction of apoptosis in keratinocytes by UV light is a critical event in photocarcinogenesis. Although p53 is of importance in this process, evidence exists that other pathways play a role as well. Therefore, we studied whether the apoptosis-related surface molecule CD95 (Fas/APO-1) is involved. The human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT expresses CD95 and undergoes apoptosis after treatment with UV light or with the ligand of CD95 (CD95L). Incubation with a neutralizing CD95 antibody completely prevented CD95L-induced apoptosis but not UV-induced apoptosis, initially suggesting that the CD95 pathway may not be involved. However, the protease CPP32, a downstream molecule of the CD95 pathway, was activated in UV-exposed HaCaT cells, and UV-induced apoptosis was blocked by the ICE protease inhibitor zVAD, implying that at least similar downstream events are involved in CD95- and UV-induced apoptosis. Activation of CD95 results in recruitment of the Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) that activates ICE proteases. Immunoprecipitation of UV-exposed HaCaT cells revealed that UV light also induces recruitment of FADD to CD95. Since neutralizing anti-CD95 antibodies failed to prevent UV-induced apoptosis, this suggested that UV light directly activates CD95 independently of the ligand CD95L. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that UV light induced clustering of CD95 in the same fashion as CD95L. Prevention of UV-induced CD95 clustering by irradiating cells at 10°C was associated with a significantly reduced death rate. Together, these data indicate that UV light directly stimulates CD95 and thereby activates the CD95 pathway to induce apoptosis independently of the natural ligand CD95L. These findings further support the concept that UV light can affect targets at the plasma membrane, thereby even inducing apoptosis.
TL;DR: Small interfering (si) and short hairpin) RNAs induce robust degradation of homologous mRNAs, making them a potent tool to achieve gene silencing in mammalian cells, and it is demonstrated they are mediated in part by signaling through TLR3.
Abstract: Small interfering (si) and short hairpin (sh) RNAs induce robust degradation of homologous mRNAs, making them a potent tool to achieve gene silencing in mammalian cells. Silencing by siRNAs is used widely because it is considered highly specific for the targeted gene, although a recent report suggests that siRNA also induce signaling through the type I IFN system. When human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) or keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines or human primary dendritic cells or macrophages were transfected with siRNA or shRNAs, suppression of nontargeted mRNA expression was detected. Additionally, siRNA and shRNA, independent of their sequences, initiated immune activation, including IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha production and increased HLA-DR expression, in transfected macrophages and dendritic cells. The siRNAs induced low, but significant, levels of IFN-beta in HEK293 and HaCaT cells. Secretion of these cytokines increased tremendously when HEK293 cells overexpressed Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), and the increased secretion of IFN-beta was inhibited by coexpression of an inhibitor of TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta, the TLR3 adaptor protein linked to IFN regulatory factor 3 signaling. Although siRNA and shRNA knockdown of genes represents a new and powerful tool, it is not without nonspecific effects, which we demonstrate are mediated in part by signaling through TLR3.
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