About: Hair keratin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 449 publications have been published within this topic receiving 12454 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the magnitude of the nitrogen isotopic values of hair keratin reflects the proportion of animal protein consumed in the diet: omnivores and ovo-lacto-vegetarians have higher delta15N than vegans, providing the first independent support for a long-held theory that, for individuals within a single population, a diet high in meat equates to elevated nitrogen isotopy values in the body relative to others eating less animal protein.
Abstract: Carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of body tissues is one of the few techniques that can furnish quantitative information about the diet of archaeological humans. The study of the effects of various diets on modern human isotopic values can help to refine palaeodietary theories, and such work also enables the testing of palaeodietary theories independent of archaeological remains and interpretations. This report discusses the use of modern human hair as a sample material for isotopic analysis. The biogenic carbon and nitrogen isotopic signal is well preserved in hair, and the isotopic values of the keratin can be related to diet. We show that atmospheric and cosmetic contamination of hair keratin does not appear to affect the measured isotopic values. In a small study of Oxford residents, we demonstrate that the magnitude of the nitrogen isotopic values of hair keratin reflects the proportion of animal protein consumed in the diet: omnivores and ovo-lacto-vegetarians have higher delta15N than vegans. There was an observed relationship between the reported amount of animal protein eaten (either meat or secondary animal products) and the nitrogen isotopic values within the two groups of omnivores and ovo-lacto-vegetarians, indicating that an increasing amount of animal protein in the diet results in an increase in the delta15N of hair keratin. This provides the first independent support for a long-held theory that, for individuals within a single population, a diet high in meat equates to elevated nitrogen isotopic values in the body relative to others eating less animal protein. The implications of such results for the magnitude of the trophic level effect are discussed. Results presented here also permit a consideration of the effects of a change of diet in the short and long term on hair keratin isotopic values.
TL;DR: Gross changes in free sulphydryl groups in hair keratin probably explain the kinky hair, and treatment of Menkes' syndrome may become possible as a result of these findings.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the precursor cells of hair cortex and nail plate share a major pathway of epithelial differentiation, and that the acidic 44K/46K and basic 56-60K hard keratins represent a co- expressed keratin pair which can serve as a marker for hair/nail-type epithelial differentiate.
Abstract: Although numerous hair proteins have been studied biochemically and many have been sequenced, relatively little is known about their in situ distribution and differential expression in the hair follicle. To study this problem, we have prepared several mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize different classes of human hair proteins. Our AE14 antibody recognizes a group of 10-25K hair proteins which most likely corresponds to the high sulfur proteins, our AE12 and AE13 antibodies define a doublet of 44K/46K proteins which are relatively acidic and correspond to the type I low sulfur keratins, and our previously described AE3 antibody recognizes a triplet of 56K/59K/60K proteins which are relatively basic and correspond to the type II low sulfur keratins. Using these and other immunological probes, we demonstrate the following. The acidic 44K/46K and basic 56-60K hair keratins appear coordinately in upper corticle and cuticle cells. The 10-25K, AE14-reactive antigens are expressed only later in more matured corticle cells that are in the upper elongation zone, but these antigens are absent from cuticle cells. The 10-nm filaments of the inner root sheath cells fail to react with any of our monoclonal antibodies and are therefore immunologically distinguishable from the cortex and cuticle filaments. Nail plate contains 10-20% soft keratins in addition to large amounts of hair keratins; these soft keratins have been identified as the 50K/58K and 48K/56K keratin pairs. Taken together, these results suggest that the precursor cells of hair cortex and nail plate share a major pathway of epithelial differentiation, and that the acidic 44K/46K and basic 56-60K hard keratins represent a co-expressed keratin pair which can serve as a marker for hair/nail-type epithelial differentiation.
TL;DR: In this article, the isotopic comparison of hair and nail keratin from the same individual showed that there is no significant difference between the two pairings, that differences in amino acid composition and turnover times cannot explain.
TL;DR: The genomic organization of the human hair keratin gene family and the complex expression characteristics of hair keratins in the hair-forming compartment are described and the role and fate ofhair keratin in the diseased hair follicle is described.
Abstract: Substantial progress has been made regarding the elucidation of differentiation processes of the human hair follicle. This review first describes the genomic organization of the human hair keratin gene family and the complex expression characteristics of hair keratins in the hair-forming compartment. Sections describe the role and fate of hair keratins in the diseased hair follicle, particularly hereditary disorders and hair follicle-derived tumors. Also included is a report on the actual state of knowledge concerning the regulation of hair keratin expression. In the second part of this review, essentially the same principles are applied to outline more recent and, thus, occasionally fewer data on specialized epithelial keratins expressed in various tissue constituents of the external sheaths and the companion layer of the follicle. A closing outlook highlights issues that need to be explored further to deepen our insight into the biology and genetics of the hair follicle.
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