Topic

# Half-space

About: Half-space is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2264 publications have been published within this topic receiving 33563 citations.

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TL;DR: A complete set of closed analytical expressions for the internal displacements and strains due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space for both point and finite rectangular sources is presented in this paper.

Abstract: A complete set of closed analytical expressions is presented in a unified manner for the internal displacements and strains due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space for both point and finite rectangular sources. These expressions are particularly compact and systematically composed of terms representing deformations in an infinite medium, a term related to surface deformation and that is multiplied by the depth of observation point. Several practical suggestions to avoid mathematical singularities and computational instabilities are also presented. The expressions derived here represent powerful tools both for the observational and theoretical analyses of static field changes associated with earthquake and volcanic phenomena.

2,685 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an extended form of the correspondence principle is employed to determine directly the quasi-static deformation of viscoelastic earth models by mass loads applied to the surface.

Abstract: An extended form of the correspondence principle is employed to determine directly the quasi-static deformation of viscoelastic earth models by mass loads applied to the surface. The stress-strain relation employed is that appropriate to a Maxwell medium. Most emphasis is placed on the discussion of spherically stratified self-gravitating earth models, although some consideration is given to the uniform elastic half space and to the uniform viscous sphere, since they determine certain limiting behaviors that are useful for interpretation and proper normalization of the general problem. Laplace transform domain solutions are obtained in the form of ‘s spectra’ of a set of viscoelastic Love numbers. These Love numbers are defined in analogy with the equivalent elastic problem. An efficient technique is described for the inversion of these s spectra, and this technique is employed to produce sets of time dependent Love numbers for a series of illustrative earth models. These sets of time dependent Love numbers are combined to produce Green functions for the surface mass load boundary value problem. Through these impulse response functions, which are obtained for radial displacement, gravity anomaly, and tilt, a brief discussion is given of the approach to isostatic equilibrium. The response of the earth to an arbitrary quasi-static surface loading may be determined by evaluating a space-time convolution integral over the loaded region using these response functions.

745 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an analytic expression for the deformation field resulting from the inflation of a finite prolate spheroidal cavity in an infinite elastic medium is given, which is equivalent to that generated by a parabolic distribution of double forces and centers of dilatation along the sphroid generator.

Abstract: Exact analytic expressions are given for the deformation field resulting from inflation of a finite prolate spheroidal cavity in an infinite elastic medium. The field is equivalent to that generated by a parabolic distribution of double forces and centers of dilatation along the spheroid generator. Approximate, but quite accurate, solutions for a dipping spheroid in an elastic half-space are found using the half-space double force and center of dilatation solutions. We compare results of the surface deformation field with those generated by the point source ellipsoidal model of Davis (1986). In the far field both models give identical results. In the near field the finite model must be used to calculate displacements and stresses within the medium. We also test the limits of applicability of the finite model as it approaches the surface by comparing the surface displacement field from a vertical spheroid with that calculated from the finite element method. We find the model gives a satisfactory approximation to the finite element results when the minimum radius of curvature of the upper surface is less than or equal to its depth beneath the free surface. Comparison of surface displacements generated by the point and finite element models gives good agreement, provided this criterion is satisfied. We have used the finite model to invert deformation data from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The results, which compare favorably with those obtained from the point ellipsoid model, can be used to estimate the distribution of stresses within the volcano in the near field of the source.

327 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a model of a horizontal circular crack in a semi-infinite elastic solid was proposed and exact expressions for vertical and horizontal displacements of the free surface of a half-space were derived for a special case of a uniformly pressurized crack.

Abstract: We consider deformation due to sill-like magma intrusions using a model of a horizontal circular crack in a semi-infinite elastic solid. We present exact expressions for vertical and horizontal displacements of the free surface of a half-space, and calculate surface displacements for a special case of a uniformly pressurized crack. We derive expressions for other observable geophysical parameters, such as the volume of a surface uplift/subsidence, and the corresponding volume change due to fluid injection/withdrawal at depth. We demonstrate that for essentially oblate (i.e. sill-like) source geometries the volume change at the source always equals the volume of the displaced material at the surface of a half-space. Our solutions compare favourably to a number of previously published approximate models. Surface deformation due to a ‘point’ crack (that is, a crack with a large depth-to-radius ratio) differs appreciably from that due to an isotropic point source (‘Mogi model’). Geodetic inversions that employ only one component of deformation (either vertical or horizontal) are unlikely to resolve the overall geometry of subsurface deformation sources even in a simplest case of axisymmetric deformation. Measurements of a complete vector displacement field at the Earth's surface may help to constrain the depth and morphology of active magma reservoirs. However, our results indicate that differences in surface displacements due to various axisymmetric sources may be subtle. In particular, the sill-like and pluton-like magma chambers may give rise to differences in the ratio of maximum horizontal displacements to maximum vertical displacements (a parameter that is most indicative of the source geometry) that are less than 30 per cent. Given measurement errors in geodetic data, such differences may be hard to distinguish.

272 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the problem of obtaining an analytic solution and practical computational procedures for recovering the properties of an unknown elastic medium from waves that have been reflected by or transmitted through the medium.

Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of obtaining an analytic solution and practical computational procedures for recovering the properties of an unknown elastic medium from waves that have been reflected by or transmitted through the medium. The medium consists of two homogeneous half‐spaces in contact with a heterogeneous region. The analytic solution is obtained by transforming the equation of motion for the propagation of plane waves at normal incidence in a stratified elastic medium into a one‐dimensional Schrodinger equation for which the inverse‐scattering problem has already been solved. The practical computational procedures are obtained by solving the corresponding discrete inverse‐scattering problem resulting from approximating the heterogeneous region with a sequence of homogeneous layers such that the travel time through each layer is the same. In both the continuous and discrete inverse scattering problems, the impedance of the medium as a function of travel time is recovered from the impulse response of the medium. A discrete analogy of the continuous solution is also developed. Similar results are obtained for a stratified elastic half space bounded by a free surface.

241 citations