Topic

# Handshake

About: Handshake is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1105 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 15166 citation(s). The topic is also known as: š¤.

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824Ā citations

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17 Nov 2002TL;DR: It is shown that in some situations, the interference range is much larger than transmission range, where RTS/CTS cannot function well, and a simple MAC layer scheme is proposed to solve this problem.

Abstract: IEEE 802.11 MAC mainly relies on two techniques to combat interference: physical carrier sensing and RTS/CTS handshake (also known as "virtual carrier sensing"). Ideally, the RTS/CTS handshake can eliminate most interference. However, the effectiveness of RTS/CTS handshake is based on the assumption that hidden nodes are within transmission range of receivers. In this paper, we prove using analytic models that in ad hoc networks, such an assumption cannot hold due to the fact that power needed for interrupting a packet reception is much lower than that of delivering a packet successfully. Thus, the "virtual carrier sensing" implemented by RTS/CTS handshake cannot prevent all interference. Physical carrier sensing can complement this in some degree. However, since interference happens at receivers, while physical carrier sensing is detecting transmitters (the same problem causing the hidden terminal situation), physical carrier sensing cannot help much, unless a very large carrier sensing range is adopted, which is limited by the antenna sensitivity. We investigate how effective is the RTS/CTS handshake in terms of reducing interference. We show that in some situations, the interference range is much larger than transmission range, where RTS/CTS cannot function well. Then, a simple MAC layer scheme is proposed to solve this problem. Simulation results verify that our scheme can help IEEE 802.11 resolve most interference caused by large interference range.

696Ā citations

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01 Jul 2003TL;DR: It is shown that in some situations, the interference range is much larger than transmission range, where RTS/CTS cannot function well, and two independent solutions are proposed that can help IEEE 802.11 resolve most interference caused by large interference range.

Abstract: IEEE 802.11 MAC mainly relies on two techniques to combat interference: physical carrier sensing and RTS/CTS handshake (also known as āvirtual carrier sensingā). Ideally, the RTS/CTS handshake can eliminate most interference. However, the effectiveness of RTS/CTS handshake is based on the assumption that hidden nodes are within transmission range of receivers. In this paper, we prove using analytic models that in ad hoc networks, such an assumption cannot hold due to the fact that power needed for interrupting a packet reception is much lower than that of delivering a packet successfully. Thus, the āvirtual carrier sensingā implemented by RTS/CTS handshake cannot prevent all interference as we expect in theory. Physical carrier sensing can complement this in some degree. However, since interference happens at receivers, while physical carrier sensing is detecting transmitters (the same problem causing the hidden terminal situation), physical carrier sensing cannot help much, unless a very large carrier sensing range is adopted, which is limited by the antenna sensitivity. In this paper, we investigate how effective is the RTS/CTS handshake in terms of reducing interference. We show that in some situations, the interference range is much larger than transmission range, where RTS/CTS cannot function well. Two independent solutions are proposed in this paper. One is a simple enhancement to the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. The other is to utilize directional antennas. Simulation results verify that the proposed schemes indeed can help IEEE 802.11 resolve most interference caused by large interference range.

453Ā citations

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21 Sep 1999Abstract: Improved techniques for facilitating secure data transfer over one-way data channels or narrowband channels are disclosed Often, these channels are wireless channels provided by wireless data networks The techniques enable cryptographic handshake operations for a one-way data channel to be performed over a companion two-way data channel so that the one-way data channel is able to effectively satisfy security protocols that require two-way communications for the cryptographic handshake operations Once the cryptographic handshake operations are complete, data can be transmitted over the one-way data channel in a secure manner Additionally, the techniques also enable the cryptographic handshake operations to be performed more rapidly because the two-way channel is typically a wideband channel In which case, the use of a wideband channel instead of a narrowband channel for the cryptographic handshake operations results in latency reductions, regardless of whether the narrowband channel is a one-way channel or a two-way channel

286Ā citations

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Philips

^{1}TL;DR: The Tangram and handshake circuits introduced here are examples of VLSI programs that can be run in either a discrete-time or a continuous-time fashion.

Abstract: 'Design by programming' has proved very successful in the development of complex software systems. This book describes the construction of programs for VLSI digital circuit design, using the language Tangram, and shows how they can be compiled automatically in fully asynchronous circuits. Handshake circuits were invented by the author to separate questions involving the efficient implementation of the VLSI circuits from issues arising in their design. Dr van Berkel presents a mathematical theory of handshake circuits and a silicon compiler supported by a correctness proof. The treatment of VLSI realizations of handshake circuits includes various forms of optimization, handshake refinement, message encoding, circuit initialization, and testing. The approach is illustrated with a host of examples drawn from a wide range of application areas. The book will be of use to electrical engineers and computer scientists involved in VLSI design.

270Ā citations