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Topic

Handwriting recognition

About: Handwriting recognition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5154 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 148736 citation(s). The topic is also known as: symbol recognition & reading handwritten characters.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1998-
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

34,930 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2001-
TL;DR: Various methods applied to handwritten character recognition are reviewed and compared and Convolutional Neural Networks, that are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques.
Abstract: Multilayer Neural Networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful Gradient-Based Learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, Gradient-Based Learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional Neural Networks, that are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation, recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called Graph Transformer Networks (GTN), allows such multi-module systems to be trained globally using Gradient-Based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for on-line handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of Graph Transformer Networks. A Graph Transformer Network for reading bank check is also described. It uses Convolutional Neural Network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provides record accuracy on business and personal checks. It is deployed commercially and reads several million checks per day.

2,756 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nature of handwritten language, how it is transduced into electronic data, and the basic concepts behind written language recognition algorithms are described.
Abstract: Handwriting has continued to persist as a means of communication and recording information in day-to-day life even with the introduction of new technologies. Given its ubiquity in human transactions, machine recognition of handwriting has practical significance, as in reading handwritten notes in a PDA, in postal addresses on envelopes, in amounts in bank checks, in handwritten fields in forms, etc. This overview describes the nature of handwritten language, how it is transduced into electronic data, and the basic concepts behind written language recognition algorithms. Both the online case (which pertains to the availability of trajectory data during writing) and the off-line case (which pertains to scanned images) are considered. Algorithms for preprocessing, character and word recognition, and performance with practical systems are indicated. Other fields of application, like signature verification, writer authentification, handwriting learning tools are also considered.

2,535 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1992-
TL;DR: On applying these methods to combine several classifiers for recognizing totally unconstrained handwritten numerals, the experimental results show that the performance of individual classifiers can be improved significantly.
Abstract: Possible solutions to the problem of combining classifiers can be divided into three categories according to the levels of information available from the various classifiers. Four approaches based on different methodologies are proposed for solving this problem. One is suitable for combining individual classifiers such as Bayesian, k-nearest-neighbor, and various distance classifiers. The other three could be used for combining any kind of individual classifiers. On applying these methods to combine several classifiers for recognizing totally unconstrained handwritten numerals, the experimental results show that the performance of individual classifiers can be improved significantly. For example, on the US zipcode database, 98.9% recognition with 0.90% substitution and 0.2% rejection can be obtained, as well as high reliability with 95% recognition, 0% substitution, and 5% rejection. >

2,340 citations


01 Jan 2001-
TL;DR: This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task, and Convolutional neural networks are shown to outperform all other techniques.
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

1,741 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021197
2020186
2019173
2018217
2017231

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Horst Bunke

88 papers, 7.4K citations

Venu Govindaraju

69 papers, 2.1K citations

Ching Y. Suen

57 papers, 5.1K citations

Christian Viard-Gaudin

53 papers, 1.1K citations

Masaki Nakagawa

52 papers, 1K citations