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Hardware Trojan

About: Hardware Trojan is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1210 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 19494 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A classification of hardware Trojans and a survey of published techniques for Trojan detection are presented.
Abstract: Editor's note:Today's integrated circuits are vulnerable to hardware Trojans, which are malicious alterations to the circuit, either during design or fabrication. This article presents a classification of hardware Trojans and a survey of published techniques for Trojan detection.

1,080 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 May 2007-
TL;DR: These results show that Trojans that are 3-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the main circuit can be detected by signal processing techniques and provide a starting point to address this important problem.
Abstract: Hardware manufacturers are increasingly outsourcing their IC fabrication work overseas due to their much lower cost structure. This poses a significant security risk for ICs used for critical military and business applications. Attackers can exploit this loss of control to substitute Trojan ICs for genuine ones or insert a Trojan circuit into the design or mask used for fabrication. We show that a technique borrowed from side-channel cryptanalysis can be used to mitigate this problem. Our approach uses noise modeling to construct a set of fingerprints/or an IC family utilizing side- channel information such as power, temperature, and electromagnetic (EM) profiles. The set of fingerprints can be developed using a few ICs from a batch and only these ICs would have to be invasively tested to ensure that they were all authentic. The remaining ICs are verified using statistical tests against the fingerprints. We describe the theoretical framework and present preliminary experimental results to show that this approach is viable by presenting results obtained by using power simulations performed on representative circuits with several different Trojan circuitry. These results show that Trojans that are 3-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the main circuit can be detected by signal processing techniques. While scaling our technique to detect even smaller Trojans in complex ICs with tens or hundreds of millions of transistors would require certain modifications to the IC design process, our results provide a starting point to address this important problem.

713 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Jun 2008-
TL;DR: A new behavior-oriented category method is proposed to divide trojans into two categories: explicit payload trojan and implicit payloadtrojan, which makes it possible to construct trojan models and then lower the cost of testing.
Abstract: Trusted IC design is a recently emerged topic since fabrication factories are moving worldwide in order to reduce cost. In order to get a low-cost but effective hardware trojan detection method to complement traditional testing methods, a new behavior-oriented category method is proposed to divide trojans into two categories: explicit payload trojan and implicit payload trojan. This categorization method makes it possible to construct trojan models and then lower the cost of testing. Path delays of nominal chips are collected to construct a series of fingerprints, each one representing one aspect of the total characteristics of a genuine design. Chips are validated by comparing their delay parameters to the fingerprints. The comparison of path delays makes small trojan circuits significant from a delay point of view. The experimentpsilas results show that the detection rate on explicit payload trojans is 100%, while this method should be developed further if used to detect implicit payload trojans.

582 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Jul 2014-
TL;DR: The threat of hardware Trojan attacks is analyzed; attack models, types, and scenarios are presented; different forms of protection approaches are discussed; and emerging attack modes, defenses, and future research pathways are described.
Abstract: Security of a computer system has been traditionally related to the security of the software or the information being processed. The underlying hardware used for information processing has been considered trusted. The emergence of hardware Trojan attacks violates this root of trust. These attacks, in the form of malicious modifications of electronic hardware at different stages of its life cycle, pose major security concerns in the electronics industry. An adversary can mount such an attack with an objective to cause operational failure or to leak secret information from inside a chip-e.g., the key in a cryptographic chip, during field operation. Global economic trend that encourages increased reliance on untrusted entities in the hardware design and fabrication process is rapidly enhancing the vulnerability to such attacks. In this paper, we analyze the threat of hardware Trojan attacks; present attack models, types, and scenarios; discuss different forms of protection approaches, both proactive and reactive; and describe emerging attack modes, defenses, and future research pathways.

464 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2010-IEEE Computer
TL;DR: A proposed new hardware Trojan taxonomy provides a first step in better understanding existing and potential threats.
Abstract: For reasons of economy, critical systems will inevitably depend on electronics made in untrusted factories. A proposed new hardware Trojan taxonomy provides a first step in better understanding existing and potential threats.

403 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021111
2020159
2019139
2018199
2017150

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Swarup Bhunia

35 papers, 2.7K citations

Mark Tehranipoor

21 papers, 673 citations

Rajat Subhra Chakraborty

21 papers, 1.4K citations

Hassan Salmani

19 papers, 725 citations

Charles A. Kamhoua

14 papers, 172 citations