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Harmaline

About: Harmaline is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 610 publications have been published within this topic receiving 16082 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The levels of DMT and beta-carbolines found in the ayahuasca samples examined in the present study were an order of magnitude greater than the levels reported in a previous study, which indicated that their effects in combination are additive, rather than synergistic or antagonistic.

329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased, suggesting a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine.
Abstract: The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potent inhibition of MAO-A by seed and root extracts of P. harmala containing beta-carbolines should contribute to the psychopharmacological and toxicological effects of this plant and could be the basis for its purported antidepressant actions.

275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine are the characteristic alkaloids found in Amazonian sacraments known as hoasca, ayahuasca, and yajè and little is known of their pharmacokinetics.

246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data suggest that PK 26124 possesses antagonistic properties of excitatory dicarboxylic amino acids, which may contribute to its anticonvulsant action.

230 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202314
202234
202121
202013
201917
201815