About: Haze is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5968 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 138446 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A simple but effective image prior - dark channel prior to remove haze from a single input image is proposed, based on a key observation - most local patches in haze-free outdoor images contain some pixels which have very low intensities in at least one color channel.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a simple but effective image prior-dark channel prior to remove haze from a single input image. The dark channel prior is a kind of statistics of outdoor haze-free images. It is based on a key observation-most local patches in outdoor haze-free images contain some pixels whose intensity is very low in at least one color channel. Using this prior with the haze imaging model, we can directly estimate the thickness of the haze and recover a high-quality haze-free image. Results on a variety of hazy images demonstrate the power of the proposed prior. Moreover, a high-quality depth map can also be obtained as a byproduct of haze removal.
TL;DR: The results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China’s PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.
Abstract: Rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. In response to the extremely severe and persistent haze pollution experienced by about 800 million people during the first quarter of 2013 (refs 4, 5), the Chinese State Council announced its aim to reduce concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres) by up to 25 per cent relative to 2012 levels by 2017 (ref. 6). Such efforts however require elucidation of the factors governing the abundance and composition of PM2.5, which remain poorly constrained in China. Here we combine a comprehensive set of novel and state-of-the-art offline analytical approaches and statistical techniques to investigate the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an during January 2013. We find that the severe haze pollution event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation, which contributed 30-77 per cent and 44-71 per cent (average for all four cities) of PM2.5 and of organic aerosol, respectively. On average, the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) are found to be of similar importance (SOA/SIA ratios range from 0.6 to 1.4). Our results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from, for example, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China's PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.
Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrodes with different haze were investigated. It was found that the incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) of DSCs increases with increase in the haze of the TiO2 electrodes, especially in the near infrared wavelength region. Conversion efficiency of 11.1%, measured by a public test center, was achieved using high haze TiO2 electrodes. This indicates that raising the haze of TiO2 electrodes is an effective technique for improvement of conversion efficiency.
Abstract: Digital analysis of remotely sensed data has become an important component of many earth-science studies. These data are often processed through a set of preprocessing or “clean-up” routines that includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, often called haze. Various methods to correct or remove the additive haze component have been developed, including the widely used dark-object subtraction technique. A problem with most of these methods is that the haze values for each spectral band are selected independently. This can create problems because atmospheric scattering is highly wavelength-dependent in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the scattering values are correlated with each other. Therefore, multispectral data such as from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner must be corrected with haze values that are spectral band dependent. An improved dark-object subtraction technique is demonstrated that allows the user to select a relative atmospheric scattering model to predict the haze values for all the spectral bands from a selected starting band haze value. The improved method normalizes the predicted haze values for the different gain and offset parameters used by the imaging system. Examples of haze value differences between the old and improved methods for Thematic Mapper Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are 40.0, 13.0, 12.0, 8.0, 5.0, and 2.0 vs. 40.0, 13.2, 8.9, 4.9, 16.7, and 3.3, respectively, using a relative scattering model of a clear atmosphere. In one Landsat multispectral scanner image the haze value differences for Bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 30.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 40.0 for the old method vs. 30.0, 34.4, 43.6, and 6.4 for the new method using a relative scattering model of a hazy atmosphere.
TL;DR: A conceptual model is proposed that explains this apparent dichotomy of pristine tropical clouds with low CCN concentrations rain out too quickly to mature into long-lived clouds and heavily polluted clouds evaporate much of their water before precipitation can occur.
Abstract: Aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus have a substantial effect on cloud properties and the initiation of precipitation. Large concentrations of human-made aerosols have been reported to both decrease and increase rainfall as a result of their radiative and CCN activities. At one extreme, pristine tropical clouds with low CCN concentrations rain out too quickly to mature into long-lived clouds. On the other hand, heavily polluted clouds evaporate much of their water before precipitation can occur, if they can form at all given the reduced surface heating resulting from the aerosol haze layer. We propose a conceptual model that explains this apparent dichotomy.