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Health care quality

About: Health care quality is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4751 publications have been published within this topic receiving 195431 citations. The topic is also known as: quality of health care.

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TL;DR: The deficits the authors have identified in adherence to recommended processes for basic care pose serious threats to the health of the American public and strategies to reduce these deficits in care are warranted.
Abstract: background We have little systematic information about the extent to which standard processes involved in health care — a key element of quality — are delivered in the United States. methods We telephoned a random sample of adults living in 12 metropolitan areas in the United States and asked them about selected health care experiences. We also received written consent to copy their medical records for the most recent two-year period and used this information to evaluate performance on 439 indicators of quality of care for 30 acute and chronic conditions as well as preventive care. We then constructed aggregate scores. results Participants received 54.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 54.3 to 55.5) of recommended care. We found little difference among the proportion of recommended preventive care provided (54.9 percent), the proportion of recommended acute care provided (53.5 percent), and the proportion of recommended care provided for chronic conditions (56.1 percent). Among different medical functions, adherence to the processes involved in care ranged from 52.2 percent for screening to 58.5 percent for follow-up care. Quality varied substantially according to the particular medical condition, ranging from 78.7 percent of recommended care (95 percent confidence interval, 73.3 to 84.2) for senile cataract to 10.5 percent of recommended care (95 percent confidence interval, 6.8 to 14.6) for alcohol dependence. conclusions The deficits we have identified in adherence to recommended processes for basic care pose serious threats to the health of the American public. Strategies to reduce these deficits in care are warranted.

4,750 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work systematically review evidence on the costs and benefits associated with use of health information technology and to identify gaps in the literature in order to provide organizations, policymakers, clinicians, and consumers an understanding of the effect ofhealth information technology on clinical care.
Abstract: This review found that 4 benchmark institutions have done most of the published research on the effects of the electronic health record on medical care. The research shows that electronic health re...

3,053 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Patient Activation Measure is a valid, highly reliable, unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale that reflects a developmental model of activation that has good psychometric properties indicating that it can be used at the individual patient level to tailor intervention and assess changes.
Abstract: Two significant emerging policy directions put patients and consumers in a key role for influencing health care quality and costs. First, consumer-directed health plans rely on informed consumer choices to contain costs and improve the quality of care. This approach assumes that consumers will make more prudent health and health care choices when they are given financial incentives along with access to comparative cost and quality information. This approach also assumes that the combination of financial incentives and relevant information will increase their “activation” (Gabel, Lo Sasso, and Rice 2002). Second, the Chronic Illness Care Model (Bodenheimer et al. 2002) emphasizes patient-oriented care, with patients and their families integrated as members of the care team. A critical element in the model is activated patients, with the skills, knowledge, and motivation to participate as effective members of the care team (Von Korff et al. 1997). A key health policy question is, what would it take for consumers to become effective and informed managers of their health and health care? What skills, knowledge, beliefs, and motivations do they need to become “activated” or more effectual health care actors? These are essential questions if we hope to improve the health care process, the outcomes of care, and control costs. This is true especially with regard to the 99 million Americans with a chronic disease. Because those with chronic illness need ongoing care, account for a large portion of health care costs, and must play an important role in maintaining their own functioning, encouraging their activation should be a priority. Even though patient activation is a central concept in both the consumer driven health care approach and the chronic illness care models, it remains conceptually and empirically underdeveloped. There has been a lack of conceptual clarity regarding “activation,” and thus a lack of adequate measurement. There are a number of existing methods for assessing different aspects of activation, such as health locus of control (Wallston, Stein, and Smith), self-efficacy in self-managing behaviors (Lorig et al. 1996), and readiness to change health-related behaviors (DiClemente et al. 1991; Prochaska, Redding, and Evers 1997), but these measures tend to focus on the prediction of a single behavior. Moreover, there is no existing measure that includes the broad range of elements involved in activation, including the knowledge, skills, beliefs, and behaviors that a patient needs to manage a chronic illness. In this paper we describe the development of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), a measure of activation that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The PAM was developed in four stages: Stage 1.Conceptually defining activation involved a literature review, systematic consultation with experts using a “consensus method,” and consultation with individuals with chronic disease using focus groups. Stage 2.Preliminary scale development began by building on the domains identified in stage one and operationalizing them with survey items within each domain. Steps included generating, refining, and testing a large item pool. We used Rasch psychometric methods to develop the scale and test the preliminary measure's psychometric properties. Stage 3.Stage three involved exploring the possibility of extending the range of the measure, refining the response categories, and testing whether the measure could be used with respondents who had no chronic illnesses. Stage 4.In the fourth and final stage a national probability sample was used to assess the performance of the measure across different subsamples in the population and to assess the construct validity of the measure.

2,085 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data from 1997 for 799 hospitals in 11 states was used to examine the relation between the amount of care provided by nurses at the hospital and patients' outcomes, and a higher proportion of hours of care per day provided by registered nurses was found among medical patients.
Abstract: Background It is uncertain whether lower levels of staffing by nurses at hospitals are associated with an increased risk that patients will have complications or die. Methods We used administrative data from 1997 for 799 hospitals in 11 states (covering 5,075,969 discharges of medical patients and 1,104,659 discharges of surgical patients) to examine the relation between the amount of care provided by nurses at the hospital and patients' outcomes. We conducted regression analyses in which we controlled for patients' risk of adverse outcomes, differences in the nursing care needed for each hospital's patients, and other variables. Results The mean number of hours of nursing care per patient-day was 11.4, of which 7.8 hours were provided by registered nurses, 1.2 hours by licensed practical nurses, and 2.4 hours by nurses' aides. Among medical patients, a higher proportion of hours of care per day provided by registered nurses and a greater absolute number of hours of care per day provided by registered nur...

2,069 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prevalence of burn out among internal medicine residents in a single university-based program is evaluated and the relationship of burnout to self-reported patient care practices is evaluated.
Abstract: In this study, burnout was common among resident physicians and was associated with self-reported suboptimal patient care practices.

1,958 citations

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