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Hearing loss

About: Hearing loss is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 30941 publications have been published within this topic receiving 679961 citations. The topic is also known as: hearing impairment & loss, hearing.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To determine the morbidity and mortality from childhood Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in a well defined population, a large number of cases are diagnosed with Hib.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To determine the morbidity and mortality from childhood Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in a well defined population. DESIGN Retrospective survey 1985-1987 and prospective surveillance of hospital laboratories 1989-1990. Information on outcome of meningitis was obtained from hospital records and attending physicians and, in 1989-1990, from a survey of the children's parents. SETTING Sydney Statistical Division, which had a population of children aged 0-4 years of 229,165 in 1986 and 263,758 in 1990. PATIENTS Eligible children were aged from one month to four years and had clinical and microbiological evidence of Hib meningitis on standard criteria. RESULTS There were 229 eligible children. Twelve were excluded (seven died and five had pre-existing neurological deficits). A neurological deficit was detected at the time of hospital discharge in 45 patients (21%) and persisted for 12 months or longer in 29 patients (13%). Follow-up information was available for 165 (96%) children who were normal at the time of hospital discharge and persistent deficits were recorded in 12 (7%) of these children. Forty-one children (19%) had readily recognisable neurological or hearing problems: nine (4%) had persistent severe neurological deficits and seven (3%) had severe hearing loss requiring hearing aids or a cochlear implant. Age had a significant influence on outcome. The youngest children were significantly more likely to be admitted to intensive care. Severe neurological deficits showed a significant negative trend with increasing age (P = 0.03). Severe unilateral or bilateral sensorineural loss (odds ratio [OR] 8.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-81) and ataxia at discharge (OR 13.3, 95% CI 2.8-128) were noticeably more common in children over two years of age, with a significant positive trend (P < or = 0.001) with increasing age. Patients requiring intensive care were much more likely to have an adverse outcome, particularly if positive pressure ventilation was needed. CONCLUSIONS These data provide population-based estimates of the minimum incidence of adverse outcomes from Hib meningitis in an urban community with good access to medical services. This is important in assessing the impact of Hib vaccination, as meningitis is responsible for most of the long-term morbidity from childhood invasive Hib disease. Determination of the relationship between morbidity and age is important for assessing alternative vaccine strategies.

8,476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that acoustic overexposures causing moderate, but completely reversible, threshold elevation leave cochlear sensory cells intact, but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the co chlear nerve.
Abstract: Overexposure to intense sound can cause temporary or permanent hearing loss. Postexposure recovery of threshold sensitivity has been assumed to indicate reversal of damage to delicate mechano-sensory and neural structures of the inner ear and no persistent or delayed consequences for auditory function. Here, we show, using cochlear functional assays and confocal imaging of the inner ear in mouse, that acoustic overexposures causing moderate, but completely reversible, threshold elevation leave cochlear sensory cells intact, but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear nerve. Results suggest that noise-induced damage to the ear has progressive consequences that are considerably more widespread than are revealed by conventional threshold testing. This primary neurodegeneration should add to difficulties hearing in noisy environments, and could contribute to tinnitus, hyperacusis, and other perceptual anomalies commonly associated with inner ear damage.

1,978 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Significantly better language development was associated with early identification of hearing loss and early intervention and the variable on which the two groups differed must be considered a potential explanation for the language advantage documented in the earlier-identified group.
Abstract: Objective. To compare the language abilities of earlier- and later-identified deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Method. We compared the receptive and expressive language abilities of 72 deaf or hard-of-hearing children whose hearing losses were identified by 6 months of age with 78 children whose hearing losses were identified after the age of 6 months. All of the children received early intervention services within an average of 2 months after identification. The participants9 receptive and expressive language abilities were measured using the Minnesota Child Development Inventory. Results. Children whose hearing losses were identified by 6 months of age demonstrated significantly better language scores than children identified after 6 months of age. For children with normal cognitive abilities, this language advantage was found across all test ages, communication modes, degrees of hearing loss, and socioeconomic strata. It also was independent of gender, minority status, and the presence or absence of additional disabilities. Conclusions. Significantly better language development was associated with early identification of hearing loss and early intervention. There was no significant difference between the earlier- and later-identified groups on several variables frequently associated with language ability in deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Thus, the variable on which the two groups differed (age of identification and intervention) must be considered a potential explanation for the language advantage documented in the earlier-identified group.

1,917 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Mary Pat Moeller1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the relationship between age of enrollment in intervention and language outcomes at 5 years of age in a group of deaf and hard-of-hearing children.
Abstract: Objective. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age of enrollment in intervention and language outcomes at 5 years of age in a group of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Method. Vocabulary skills at 5 years of age were examined in a group of 112 children with hearing loss who were enrolled at various ages in a comprehensive intervention program. Verbal reasoning skills were explored in a subgroup of 80 of these children. Participants were evaluated using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and a criterion-referenced measure, the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, administered individually by professionals skilled in assessing children with hearing loss. A rating scale was developed to characterize the level of family involvement in the intervention program for children in the study. Results. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between age of enrollment and language outcomes at 5 years of age. Children who were enrolled earliest (eg, by 11 months of age) demonstrated significantly better vocabulary and verbal reasoning skills at 5 years of age than did later-enrolled children. Regardless of degree of hearing loss, early-enrolled children achieved scores on these measures that approximated those of their hearing peers. In an attempt to understand the relationships among performance and factors, such as age of enrollment, family involvement, degree of hearing loss, and nonverbal intelligence, multiple regression models were applied to the data. The analyses revealed that only 2 of these factors explained a significant amount of the variance in language scores obtained at 5 years of age: family involvement and age of enrollment. Surprisingly, family involvement explained the most variance after controlling for the influence of the other factors ( r = .615; F change = 58.70), underscoring the importance of this variable. Age of enrollment also contributed significantly to explained variance after accounting for the other variables in the regression ( r = −.452; F change = 19.24). Importantly, there were interactions between the factors of family involvement and age of enrollment that influenced outcomes. Early enrollment was of benefit to children across all levels of family involvement. However, the most successful children in this study were those with high levels of family involvement who were enrolled early in intervention services. Late-identified children whose families were described as limited or average in involvement scored >2 standard deviations below their hearing peers at 5 years of age. Even in the best of circumstances (eg, early enrollment paired with high levels of family involvement), the children in this study scored within the low average range in abstract verbal reasoning compared with hearing peers, reflecting qualitative language differences in these groups of children. Conclusions. Consistent with the findings of Yoshinaga-Itano et al, 1 significantly better language scores were associated with early enrollment in intervention. High levels of family involvement correlated with positive language outcomes, and, conversely, limited family involvement was associated with significant child language delays at 5 years of age, especially when enrollment in intervention was late. The results suggest that success is achieved when early identification is paired with early interventions that actively involve families.

1,302 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The implementation of universal screening programs to detect hearing defects in newborns has dramatically increased the identification of hearing loss in infants, and further improvement in these programs can readily be achieved.
Abstract: The implementation of universal screening programs to detect hearing defects in newborns has dramatically increased the identification of hearing loss in infants. Recent advances in understanding the nature and causes of prelingual hearing loss, combined with advances in technology, suggest that further improvement in these programs can readily be achieved.

1,281 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20231,220
20222,396
20211,662
20201,578
20191,531
20181,380