Topic

# Heat flux

About: Heat flux is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 46752 publications have been published within this topic receiving 870430 citations. The topic is also known as: thermal flux & heat flux density.

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TL;DR: In this article, the basic relationships are discussed in the context of vertical transfer in the lower atmosphere, and the required corrections to the measured flux are derived, where the correction to measurements of water vapour flux will often be only a few per cent but will sometimes exceed 10 percent.

Abstract: When the atmospheric turbulent flux of a minor constituent such as CO2 (or of water vapour as a special case) is measured by either the eddy covariance or the mean gradient technique, account may need to be taken of variations of the constituent's density due to the presence of a flux of heat and/or water vapour. In this paper the basic relationships are discussed in the context of vertical transfer in the lower atmosphere, and the required corrections to the measured flux are derived.
If the measurement involves sensing of the fluctuations or mean gradient of the constituent's mixing ratio relative to the dry air component, then no correction is required; while with sensing of the constituent's specific mass content relative to the total moist air, a correction arising from the water vapour flux only is required. Correspondingly, if in mean gradient measurements the constituent's density is measured in air from different heights which has been pre-dried and brought to a common temperature, then again no correction is required; while if the original (moist) air itself is brought to a common temperature, then only a correction arising from the water vapour flux is required.
If the constituent's density fluctuations or mean gradients are measured directly in the air in situ, then corrections arising from both heat and water vapour fluxes are required.
These corrections will often be very important. That due to the heat flux is about five times as great as that due to an equal latent heat (water vapour) flux. In CO2 flux measurements the magnitude of the correction will commonly exceed that of the flux itself. The correction to measurements of water vapour flux will often be only a few per cent but will sometimes exceed 10 per cent.

3,856 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore four possible explanations for the anomalous thermal conductivity of nanofluids: Brownian motion of the particles, molecular-level layering of the liquid at the liquid/particle interface, the nature of heat transport in the nanoparticles, and the effects of nanoparticle clustering.

Abstract: Recent measurements on nanofluids have demonstrated that the thermal conductivity increases with decreasing grain size. However, such increases cannot be explained by existing theories. We explore four possible explanations for this anomalous increase: Brownian motion of the particles, molecular-level layering of the liquid at the liquid/particle interface, the nature of heat transport in the nanoparticles, and the effects of nanoparticle clustering. We show that the key factors in understanding thermal properties of nanofluids are the ballistic, rather than diffusive, nature of heat transport in the nanoparticles, combined with direct or fluid-mediated clustering effects that provide paths for rapid heat transport.

1,811 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the various physical processes relating near-surface atmospheric and oceanographic bulk variables ; their relationship to the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat ; and their expression in a bulk flux algorithm.

Abstract: This paper describes the various physical processes relating near-surface atmospheric and oceanographic bulk variables ; their relationship to the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat ; and their expression in a bulk flux algorithm. The algorithm follows the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity approach for near-surface meteorological measurements but includes separate models for the ocean's cool skin and the diurnal warm layer, which are used to derive true skin temperature from the bulk temperature measured at some depth near the surface. The basic structure is an outgrowth of the Liu-Katsaros-Businger [Liu et al., 1979] method, with modifications to include a different specification of the roughness/stress relationship, a gustiness velocity to account for the additional flux induced by boundary layer scale variability, and profile functions obeying the convective limit. Additionally, we have considered the contributions of the sensible heat carried by precipitation and the requirement that the net dry mass flux be zero (the so-called Webb correction [Webb et al., 1980]). The algorithm has been tuned to fit measurements made on the R/V Moana Wave in the three different cruise legs made during the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. These measurements yielded 1622 fifty-min averages of fluxes and bulk variables in the wind speed range from 0.5 to 10 m s -1 . The analysis gives statistically reliable values for the Charnock [1955] constant (a = 0.011) and the gustiness parameter (β = 1.25). An overall mean value for the latent heat flux, neutral bulk-transfer coefficient was 1.11 x 10 -3 , declining slightly with increasing wind speed. Mean values for the sensible and latent heat fluxes were 9.1 and 103.5 W m -2 ; mean values for the Webb and rain heat fluxes were 2.5 and 4.5 W m -2 . Accounting for all factors, the net surface heat transfer to the ocean was 17.9 ± 10 W m -2 .

1,778 citations

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02 Oct 1985

TL;DR: In this paper, the Inverse Heat Conduction Problem (IHCP) is formulated as a two-dimensional Inverse Convolutional Problem (ICP) and the solution of the one-dimensional IHCP is described.

Abstract: Description of the Inverse Heat Conduction Problem Exact Solutions of the Inverse Heat Conduction Problem Approximate Methods for Direct Heat Conduction Problems Inverse Heat Conduction Estimation Procedures Inverse Convolution Procedures Difference Methods for Solution of the One Dimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problem Multiple Heat Flux Estimation Heat Transfer Coefficient Estimation Index

1,650 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a simple way to model the pressure-containing correlations which appear in the transport equations for Reynolds stress and heat flux was proposed, which accounts for gravitational effects and the modification of the fluctuating pressure field by the presence of a wall.

Abstract: Proposals are made for modelling the pressure-containing correlations which appear in the transport equations for Reynolds stress and heat flux in a simple way which accounts for gravitational effects and the modification of the fluctuating pressure field by the presence of a wall. The predicted changes in structure are shown to agree with Young's (1975) measurements in a free stratified shear flow and with the Kansas data on the atmospheric surface layer.

1,404 citations