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Heat pump

About: Heat pump is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 43643 publications have been published within this topic receiving 325857 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization and compared data from 1995 and 2000 presented at two World Geothermal Congresses in Italy and Japan (WGC95 and WGC2000).

1,079 citations

21 Apr 2016
TL;DR: The ABSIM software package as discussed by the authors is a software package for the ABSIM equation solver, which can be used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of an Absorption Cycle.
Abstract: Introduction Heat Pumps Heat-Driven Heat Pumps Description of Current Absorption Products Outlook for Absorption Technology Absorption Cycle Fundamentals Carnot Cycles Absorption Heat Pump, Type I Absorption Heat Transformer, Type II Absorption Heat Pump as Combination of Rankine Cycles Reversible Analysis with Variable Temperatures Irreversibilities in Absorption Cycle Processes Zero-Order Absorption Cycle Model Absorption Cycle Design Optimization Properties of Working Fluids Analytic Treatment of Thermodynamic Properties Graphical Perspective on Thermodynamic Properties of Absorption Working Fluids Thermodynamic Processes with Mixtures Mixing of Fluids and the Heat of Mixing Specific Heat of Mixtures Desorption Absorption Condensation and Evaporation Compression Pumping Throttling Ammonia Purification Heat Exchangers WATER/LITHIUM BROMIDE SYSTEMS Overview of Water/Lithium Bromide Technology Fundamentals and Operation Crystallization and Absorber Cooling Requirements Corrosion and Materials Compatibility Vacuum Requirements Octyl Alcohol Normal Maintenance and Expected Life Controls Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Technology Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Chiller Operating Conditions Single-Effect with Heat Transfer Models Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Heat Transformer (Type II Heat Pump) Discussion of Available Single-Effect Systems Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Technology Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Cycles Solution Circuit Plumbing Options Operating Conditions of Double-Effect Machines Systems on the Market Advanced Water/Lithium Bromide Cycles Half-Effect Cycle Triple-Effect Cycle Resorption Cycle Additional Water/Lithium Bromide Technology AMMONIA/WATER SYSTEMS Single-Stage Ammonia/Water Systems General Considerations Performance Calculations Examples of Ammonia/Water Absorption Systems in Operations Two-Stage Ammonia/Water Systems Double-Effect Ammonia/Water Systems Double-Lift Ammonia/Water Systems Two-Stage Triple-Effect Ammonia/Water System Generator/Absorber Heat Exchange (GAX) Cycles Concept, Configurations and Design Considerations Branched GAX Systems GAX Cycle Hardware Diffusion Absorption Cycle Introduction Cycle Physics Choice of the Auxiliary Gas Total Pressure of the System Cycle Performance APPENDICES Properties of LiBr/H2O Properties of NH3/H2O Absorption Cycle Modeling Concentration Measurements by Titration Introduction to Engineering Equation Solver Overview of the ABSIM Software Package References Index

917 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2010-Energy
TL;DR: In this article, the role of district heating in future renewable energy systems is analyzed based on the case of Denmark, and the consequences in relation to fuel demand, CO 2 emissions and cost are calculated for various heating options, including district heating as well as individual heat pumps and micro CHPs (Combined Heat and Power).

793 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an update on recent developments in heat pump systems, and is intended to be a "one-stop" archive of known practical heat pump solutions.

737 citations

01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a detailed discussion of common HVAC units and their dimensions, as well as the basic concerns of IAQ, such as comfort, health, and environment.
Abstract: Preface About the Authors Symbols 1. Introduction 1-1 Historical Notes 1-2 Common HVAC Units and Dimensions 1-3 Fundamental Physical Concepts 1-4 Additional Comments References Problems 2. Air-Conditioning Systems 2-1 The Complete System 2-2 System Selection and Arrangement 2-3 HVAC Components and Distribution Systems 2-4 Types of All-Air Systems 2-5 Air-and-Water Systems 2-6 All-Water Systems 2-7 Decentralized Cooling and Heating 2-8 Heat Pump Systems 2-9 Heat Recovery Systems 2-10 Thermal Energy Storage References Problems 3. Moist Air Properties and Conditioning Processes 3-1 Moist Air and the Standard Atmosphere 3-2 Fundamental Parameters 3-3 Adiabatic Saturation 3-4 Wet Bulb Temperature and the Psychrometric Chart 3-5 Classic Moist Air Processes 3-6 Space Air Conditioning Design Conditions 3-7 Space Air Conditioning Off-Design Conditions References Problems 4. Comfort and Health Indoor Environmental Quality 4-1 Comfort Physiological Considerations 4-2 Environmental Comfort Indices 4-3 Comfort Conditions 4-4 The Basic Concerns of IAQ 4-5 Common Contaminants 4-6 Methods to Control Humidity 4-7 Methods to Control Contaminants References Problems 5. Heat Transmission in Building Structures 5-1 Basic Heat-Transfer Modes 5-2 Tabulated Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients 5-3 Moisture Transmission References Problems 6. Space Heating Load 6-1 Outdoor Design Conditions 6-2 Indoor Design Conditions 6-3 Transmission Heat Losses 6-4 Infiltration 6-5 Heat Losses from Air Ducts 6-6 Auxiliary Heat Sources 6-7 Intermittently Heated Structures 6-8 Supply Air For Space Heating 6-9 Source Media for Space Heating 6-10 Computer Calculation of Heating Loads References Problems 7. Solar Radiation 7-1 Thermal Radiation 7-2 The Earth's Motion About the Sun 7-3 Time 7-4 Solar Angles 7-5 Solar Irradiation 7-6 Heat Gain Through Fenestrations 7-7 Energy Calculations References Problems 8. The Cooling Load 8-1 Heat Gain, Cooling Load, and Heat Extraction Rate 8-2 Application of Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 8-3 Design Conditions 8-4 Internal Heat Gains 8-5 Overview of the Heat Balance Method 8-6 Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 8-7 Outside Surface Heat Balance Opaque Surfaces 8-8 Fenestration Transmitted Solar Radiation 8-9 Interior Surface Heat Balance Opaque Surfaces 8-10 Surface Heat Balance Transparent Surfaces 8-11 Zone Air Heat Balance 8-12 Implementation of the Heat Balance Method 8-13 Radiant Time Series Method 8-14 Implementation of the Radiant Time Series Method 8-15 Supply Air Quantities References Problems 9. Energy Calculations and Building Simulation 9-1 Degree-Day Procedure 9-2 Bin Method 9-3 Comprehensive Simulation Methods 9-4 Energy Calculation Tools 9-5 Other Aspects of Building Simulation References Problems 10. Flow, Pumps, and Piping Design 10-1 Fluid Flow Basics 10-2 Centrifugal Pumps 10-3 Combined System and Pump Characteristics 10-4 Piping System Fundamentals 10-5 System Design 10-6 Steam Heating Systems References Problems 11. Space Air Diffusion 11-1 Behavior of Jets 11-2 Air-Distribution System Design References Problems 12. Fans and Building Air Distribution 12-1 Fans 12-2 Fan Relations 12-3 Fan Performance and Selection 12-4 Fan Installation 12-5 Field Performance Testing 12-6 Fans and Variable-Air-Volume Systems 12-7 Air Flow in Ducts 12-8 Air Flow in Fittings 12-9 Accessories 12-10 Duct Design General 12-11 Duct Design Sizing References Problems 13. Direct Contact Heat and Mass Transfer 13-1 Combined Heat and Mass Transfer 13-2 Spray Chambers 13-3 Cooling Towers References Problems 14. Extended Surface Heat Exchangers 14-1 The Log Mean Temperature Deficiency (LMTD) Method 14-2 The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method 14-3 Heat Transfer-Single-Component Fluids 14-4 Transport Coefficients Inside Tubes 14-5 Transport Coefficients Outside Tubes and Compact Surfaces 14-6 Design Procedures for Sensible Heat Transfer 14-7 Combined Heat and Mass Transfer References Problems 15. Refrigeration 15-1 The Performance of Refrigeration Systems 15-2 The Theoretical Single-Stage Compression Cycle 15-3 Refrigerants 15-4 Refrigeration Equipment Components 15-5 The Real Single-Stage Cycle 15-6 Absorption Refrigeration 15-7 The Theoretical Absorption Refrigeration System 15-8 The Aqua-Ammonia Absorption System 15-9 The Lithium Bromide-Water System References Problems Appendix A. Thermophysical Properties Table A-1a. Properties of Refrigerant 718 (Water-Steam) English Units Table A-1b. Properties of Refrigerant 718 (Water-Steam) SI Units Table A-2a. Properties of Refrigerant 134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane) English Units Table A-2b. Properties of Refrigerant 134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane) SI Units Table A-3a. Properties of Refrigerant 22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) English Units Table A-3b. Properties of Refrigerant 22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) SI Units Table A-4a. Air English Units Table A-4b. Air SI Units Appendix B. Weather Data Table B-1a. Heating and Cooling Design Conditions United States, Canada, and the World English Units Table B-1b. Heating and Cooling Design Conditions United States, Canada, and the World SI Units Table B-2. Annual BinWeather Data for Oklahoma City,OK Table B-3. Annual Bin Weather Data for Chicago, IL Table B-4. Annual Bin Weather Data for Denver, CO Table B-5. Annual Bin Weather Data for Washington, DC Appendix C. Pipe and Tube Data Table C-1. Steel Pipe Dimensions English and SI Units Table C-2. Type L Copper Tube Dimensions English and SI Units Appendix D. Useful Data Table D-1. Conversion Factors Appendix E: Charts Chart 1a. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1 (IP) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.) Chart 1b. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1 (SI) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.) Chart 1Ha. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 4 (IP) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.) Chart 1Hb. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 6 (SI) (Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE.) Chart 2. Enthalpy-concentration diagram for ammonia-water solutions (From Unit Operations by G. G. Brown, Copyright (c)1951 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Chart 3. Pressure-enthalpy diagram for refrigerant 134a (Reprinted by permission.) Chart 4. Pressure-enthalpy diagram for refrigerant 22 (Reprinted by permission.) Chart 5. Enthalpy-concentration diagram for Lithium Bromide-water solutions (Courtesy of Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago IL.) Index

712 citations

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