Heat shock protein
About: Heat shock protein is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 20701 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1040593 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Heat-Shock Proteins & heat shock protein.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A comparison of different Organisms and Stages of Development and Heat-Induced Lethality and Thermotolerance and the role of RNA Processing are presented.
Abstract: PERSPECTIVES AND SUMMARY . . . . . 1151 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESPONSE 1153 Comparison: Different Organisms and Stages of Development. ll53 The Proteins Induced by Heat ... . 1155 RNAs Induced by Heat 1167 OTHER INDUCTIONS OF HSPs 1168 Developmental Inductions .. . ... . . . . . . .. .. .. . ... ...... . .... . .. . . . 1168 Other Inducers 1 1 69 Is There a Common Mechanism? ........ ... 1170 GENOME ORGANIZATION 1172 REGULATION OF THE RESPONSE 1173 Transcription 1173 Translation . . . . .. ..... ......... .. . . .. .. .. .... . .. ...... . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . 1177 RNA Processing 1178 TOLERANCE TO HEAT AND OTHER FORMS OF STRESS . . . 1179 Heat-Induced Lethality and Thermotolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179 Phenocopies 1182 CONCLUDING REMARKS 1184
TL;DR: This method was used to delineate coiled-coil domains in otherwise globular proteins, such as the leucine zipper domains in transcriptional regulators, and to predict regions of discontinuity within coiled -coil structures,such as the hinge region in myosin.
Abstract: The probability that a residue in a protein is part of a coiled-coil structure was assessed by comparison of its flanking sequences with sequences of known coiled-coil proteins. This method was used to delineate coiled-coil domains in otherwise globular proteins, such as the leucine zipper domains in transcriptional regulators, and to predict regions of discontinuity within coiled-coil structures, such as the hinge region in myosin. More than 200 proteins that probably have coiled-coil domains were identified in GenBank, including alpha- and beta-tubulins, flagellins, G protein beta subunits, some bacterial transfer RNA synthetases, and members of the heat shock protein (Hsp70) family.
TL;DR: This work discloses that expression of Hsps can occur in nature, all species have hsp genes but they vary in the patterns of their expression, and Hsp expression can be correlated with resistance to stress, and species' thresholds for HSP expression are correlated with levels of stress that they naturally undergo.
Abstract: Molecular chaperones, including the heat-shock proteins (Hsps), are a ubiquitous feature of cells in which these proteins cope with stress-induced denaturation of other proteins. Hsps have received the most attention in model organisms undergoing experimental stress in the laboratory, and the function of Hsps at the molecular and cellular level is becoming well understood in this context. A complementary focus is now emerging on the Hsps of both model and nonmodel organisms undergoing stress in nature, on the roles of Hsps in the stress physiology of whole multicellular eukaryotes and the tissues and organs they comprise, and on the ecological and evolutionary correlates of variation in Hsps and the genes that encode them. This focus discloses that (a) expression of Hsps can occur in nature, (b) all species have hsp genes but they vary in the patterns of their expression, (c) Hsp expression can be correlated with resistance to stress, and (d) species' thresholds for Hsp expression are correlated with levels of stress that they naturally undergo. These conclusions are now well established and may require little additional confirmation; many significant questions remain unanswered concerning both the mechanisms of Hsp-mediated stress tolerance at the organismal level and the evolutionary mechanisms that have diversified the hsp genes.
TL;DR: C crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants under different environmental stresses or exogenous application of osmoprotectants such as glycinebetaine and proline, and by traditional and contemporary molecular breeding protocols and transgenic approaches.
Abstract: Heat stress due to increased temperature is an agricultural problem in many areas in the world. Transitory or constantly high temperatures cause an array of morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield. The adverse effects of heat stress can be mitigated by developing crop plants with improved thermotolerance using various genetic approaches. For this purpose, however, a thorough understanding of physiological responses of plants to high temperature, mechanisms of heat tolerance and possible strategies for improving crop thermotolerance is imperative. Heat stress affects plant growth throughout its ontogeny, though heat-threshold level varies considerably at different developmental stages. For instance, during seed germination, high temperature may slow down or totally inhibit germination, depending on plant species and the intensity of the stress. At later stages, high temperature may adversely affect photosynthesis, respiration, water relations and membrane stability, and also modulate levels of hormones and primary and secondary metabolites. Furthermore, throughout plant ontogeny, enhanced expression of a variety of heat shock proteins, other stress-related proteins, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) constitute major plant responses to heat stress. In order to cope with heat stress, plants implement various mechanisms, including maintenance of membrane stability, scavenging of ROS, production of antioxidants, accumulation and adjustment of compatible solutes, induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) cascades, and, most importantly, chaperone signaling and transcriptional activation. All these mechanisms, which are regulated at the molecular level, enable plants to thrive under heat stress. Based on a complete understanding of such mechanisms, potential genetic strategies to improve plant heat-stress tolerance include traditional and contemporary molecular breeding protocols and transgenic approaches. While there are a few examples of plants with improved heat tolerance through the use of traditional breeding protocols, the success of genetic transformation approach has been thus far limited. The latter is due to limited knowledge and availability of genes with known effects on plant heat-stress tolerance, though these may not be insurmountable in future. In addition to genetic approaches, crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants under different environmental stresses or exogenous application of osmoprotectants such as glycinebetaine and proline. Acquiring thermotolerance is an active process by which considerable amounts of plant resources are diverted to structural and functional maintenance to escape damages caused by heat stress. Although biochemical and molecular aspects of thermotolerance in plants are relatively well understood, further studies focused on phenotypic flexibility and assimilate partitioning under heat stress and factors modulating crop heat tolerance are imperative. Such studies combined with genetic approaches to identify and map genes (or QTLs) conferring thermotolerance will not only facilitate marker-assisted breeding for heat tolerance but also pave the way for cloning and characterization of underlying genetic factors which could be useful for engineering plants with improved heat tolerance.
TL;DR: This work has shown that for specific tasks the Hsp70 cycle is coupled to the action of other chaperones, such as Hsp90 and Hsp100, and this ATPase cycle is controlled by co-chaperones of the family of J-domain proteins, which target H Sp70s to their substrates, and by nucleotide exchange factors, which determine the lifetime of the HSp70-substrate complex.
Abstract: Hsp70 proteins are central components of the cellular network of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts. They assist a large variety of protein folding processes in the cell by transient association of their substrate binding domain with short hydrophobic peptide segments within their substrate proteins. The substrate binding and release cycle is driven by the switching of Hsp70 between the low-affinity ATP bound state and the high-affinity ADP bound state. Thus, ATP binding and hydrolysis are essential in vitro and in vivo for the chaperone activity of Hsp70 proteins. This ATPase cycle is controlled by co-chaperones of the family of J-domain proteins, which target Hsp70s to their substrates, and by nucleotide exchange factors, which determine the lifetime of the Hsp70-substrate complex. Additional co-chaperones fine-tune this chaperone cycle. For specific tasks the Hsp70 cycle is coupled to the action of other chaperones, such as Hsp90 and Hsp100.
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