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# Heisenberg model

About: Heisenberg model is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8827 publications have been published within this topic receiving 217659 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, it is rigorously proved that at any nonzero temperature, a one- or two-dimensional isotropic spin-S$ Heisenberg model with finite-range exchange interaction can be neither ferromagnetic nor antiferromagnetic.

Abstract: It is rigorously proved that at any nonzero temperature, a one- or two-dimensional isotropic spin-$S$ Heisenberg model with finite-range exchange interaction can be neither ferromagnetic nor antiferromagnetic. The method of proof is capable of excluding a variety of types of ordering in one and two dimensions.

5,449 citations

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TL;DR: A generalization of the numerical renormalization-group procedure used first by Wilson for the Kondo problem is presented and it is shown that this formulation is optimal in a certain sense.

Abstract: A generalization of the numerical renormalization-group procedure used first by Wilson for the Kondo problem is presented. It is shown that this formulation is optimal in a certain sense. As a demonstration of the effectiveness of this approach, results from numerical real-space renormalization-group calculations for Heisenberg chains are presented.

4,694 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, two genuinely quantum models for an antiferromagnetic linear chain with nearest neighbor interactions are constructed and solved exactly, in the sense that the ground state, all the elementary excitations and the free energy are found.

Abstract: Two genuinely quantum mechanical models for an antiferromagnetic linear chain with nearest neighbor interactions are constructed and solved exactly, in the sense that the ground state, all the elementary excitations and the free energy are found. A general formalism for calculating the instantaneous correlation between any two spins is developed and applied to the investigation of short- and long-range order. Both models show nonvanishing long-range order in the ground state for a range of values of a certain parameter X which is analogous to an anisotropy parameter in the Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison with the Heisenberg model suggests that the latter has no long-range order in the isotropic case but finite long-range order for any finite amount of anisotropy. The unreliability of variational methods for determining long-range order is emphasized. It is also shown that for spin ½ systems having rather general isotropic Heisenberg interactions favoring an antiferromagnetic ordering, the ground state is nondegenerate and there is no energy gap above the ground state in the energy spectrum of the total system.

2,999 citations

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TL;DR: Xu et al. as mentioned in this paper used magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to show that monolayer chromium triiodide (CrI3) is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation.

Abstract: Magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy is used to show that monolayer chromium triiodide is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation. The question of what happens to the properties of a material when it is thinned down to atomic-scale thickness has for a long time been a largely hypothetical one. In the past decade, new experimental methods have made it possible to isolate and measure a range of two-dimensional structures, enabling many theoretical predictions to be tested. But it has been a particular challenge to observe intrinsic magnetic effects, which could shed light on the longstanding fundamental question of whether intrinsic long-range magnetic order can robustly exist in two dimensions. In this issue of Nature, two groups address this challenge and report ferromagnetism in atomically thin crystals. Xiang Zhang and colleagues measured atomic layers of Cr2Ge2Te6 and observed ferromagnetic ordering with a transition temperature that, unusually, can be controlled using small magnetic fields. Xiaodong Xu and colleagues measured atomic layers of CrI3 and observed ferromagnetic ordering that, remarkably, was suppressed in double layers of CrI3, but restored in triple layers. The two studies demonstrate a platform with which to test fundamental properties of purely two-dimensional magnets. Since the discovery of graphene1, the family of two-dimensional materials has grown, displaying a broad range of electronic properties. Recent additions include semiconductors with spin–valley coupling2, Ising superconductors3,4,5 that can be tuned into a quantum metal6, possible Mott insulators with tunable charge-density waves7, and topological semimetals with edge transport8,9. However, no two-dimensional crystal with intrinsic magnetism has yet been discovered10,11,12,13,14; such a crystal would be useful in many technologies from sensing to data storage15. Theoretically, magnetic order is prohibited in the two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model at finite temperatures by the Mermin–Wagner theorem16. Magnetic anisotropy removes this restriction, however, and enables, for instance, the occurrence of two-dimensional Ising ferromagnetism. Here we use magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to demonstrate that monolayer chromium triiodide (CrI3) is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation. Its Curie temperature of 45 kelvin is only slightly lower than that of the bulk crystal, 61 kelvin, which is consistent with a weak interlayer coupling. Moreover, our studies suggest a layer-dependent magnetic phase, highlighting thickness-dependent physical properties typical of van der Waals crystals17,18,19. Remarkably, bilayer CrI3 displays suppressed magnetization with a metamagnetic effect20, whereas in trilayer CrI3 the interlayer ferromagnetism observed in the bulk crystal is restored. This work creates opportunities for studying magnetism by harnessing the unusual features of atomically thin materials, such as electrical control for realizing magnetoelectronics12, and van der Waals engineering to produce interface phenomena15.

2,376 citations

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TL;DR: A formulation of numerical real-space renormalization groups for quantum many-body problems is presented and several algorithms utilizing this formulation are outlined, which can be applied to almost any one-dimensional quantum lattice system, and can provide a wide variety of static properties.

Abstract: A formulation of numerical real-space renormalization groups for quantum many-body problems is presented and several algorithms utilizing this formulation are outlined. The methods are presented and demonstrated using S=1/2 and S=1 Heisenberg chains as test cases. The key idea of the formulation is that rather than keep the lowest-lying eigenstates of the Hamiltonian in forming a new effective Hamiltonian of a block of sites, one should keep the most significant eigenstates of the block density matrix, obtained from diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of a larger section of the lattice which includes the block. This approach is much more accurate than the standard approach; for example, energies for the S=1 Heisenberg chain can be obtained to an accuracy of at least ${10}^{\mathrm{\ensuremath{-}}9}$. The method can be applied to almost any one-dimensional quantum lattice system, and can provide a wide variety of static properties.

2,191 citations