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Topic

Hematite

About: Hematite is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7922 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 219272 citation(s). The topic is also known as: blood stone & oligiste.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The oxidation potential of dithionite (Na2S2O4) increases from 0.37 V to 0.73 V with increase in pH from 6 to 9, because hydroxyl is consumed during oxidation of dithionite. At the same time the amount of iron oxide dissolved in 15 minutes falls off (from 100 percent to less than 1 percent extracted) with increase in pH from 6 to 12 owing to solubility product relationships of iron oxides. An optimum pH for maximum reaction kinetics occurs at approximately pH 7.3. A buffer is needed to hold the pH at the optimum level because 4 moles of OH are used up in reaction with each mole of Na2S2O4 oxidized. Tests show that NaHCO3 effectively serves as a buffer in this application. Crystalline hematite dissolved in amounts of several hundred milligrams in 2 min. Crystalline goethite dissolved more slowly, but dissolved during the two or three 15 min treatments normally given for iron oxide removal from soils and clays. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soils and clays was tested with soils high in free iron oxides and with nontronite and other iron-bearing clays. It was found that the bicarbonate-buffered Na2S2O4-citrate system was the most effective in removal of free iron oxides from latosolic soils, and the least destructive of iron silicate clays as indicated by least loss in cation exchange capacity after the iron oxide removal treatment. With soils the decrease was very little but with the very susceptible Woody district nontronite, the decrease was about 17 percent as contrasted to 35–80 percent with other methods.

3,637 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), wustite (FeO), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), goethite (α-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and δ-FeOOH were studied by Raman microscopy. Such compounds have already been studied by Raman spectroscopy, but there are some disagreements in the reported data. Here, Raman microscopy was employed to investigate the laser power dependence of the spectra of these oxides and oxyhydroxides. Low laser power was used for the reference spectra in order to minimize the risks of spectral changes due to sample degradation. The results obtained show that increasing laser power causes the characteristic bands of hematite to show up in the spectra of most of the compounds studied whereas the hematite spectrum undergoes band broadening and band shifts. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2,264 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1960
Abstract: The oxidation potential of dithionite (Na 2 S 2 O 4 ) increases from 0.37 V to 0.73 V with increase in pH from 6 to 9, because hydroxyl is consumed during oxidation of dithionite. At the same time the amount of iron oxide dissolved in 15 minutes falls off (from 100 percent to less than 1 percent extracted) with increase in pH from 6 to 12 owing to solubility product relationships of iron oxides. An optimum pH for maximum reaction kinetics occurs at approximately pH 7.3. A buffer is needed to hold the pH at the optimum level because 4 moles of OH are used up in reaction with each mole of Na 2 S 2 O 4 oxidized. Tests show that NaHCO 3 effectively serves as a buffer in this application. Crystalline hematite dissolved in amounts of several hundred milligrams in 2 min. Crystalline geothite dissolved more slowly, but dissolved during the two or three 15 min treatments normally given for iron oxide removal from soils and clays. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soils and clays was tested with soils high in free iron oxides and with nontronite and other iron-bearing clays. It was found that the bicarbonate-buffered Na 2 S 2 O 4 -citrate system was the most effective in removal of free iron oxides from latosolic soils, and the least destructive of iron silicate clays as indicated by least loss in cation exchange capacity after the iron oxide removal treatment. With soils the decrease was very little but with the very susceptible Woody district nontronite, the decrease was aboout 17 percent as contrasted to 35-80 percent with other methods.

2,043 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that iron reduction can outcompete methanogenic food chains for sediment organic matter when amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides are available in anaerobic sediments, and the transfer of electrons from organic matter to ferric iron can be a major pathway for organic matter decomposition.
Abstract: The potential for ferric iron reduction with fermentable substrates, fermentation products, and complex organic matter as electron donors was investigated with sediments from freshwater and brackish water sites in the Potomac River Estuary. In enrichments with glucose and hematite, iron reduction was a minor pathway for electron flow, and fermentation products accumulated. The substitution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide for hematite in glucose enrichments increased iron reduction 50-fold because the fermentation products could also be metabolized with concomitant iron reduction. Acetate, hydrogen, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, methanol, and trimethylamine stimulated the reduction of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide in enrichments inoculated with sediments but not in uninoculated or heat-killed controls. The addition of ferric iron inhibited methane production in sediments. The degree of inhibition of methane production by various forms of ferric iron was related to the effectiveness of these ferric compounds as electron acceptors for the metabolism of acetate. The addition of acetate or hydrogen relieved the inhibition of methane production by ferric iron. The decrease of electron equivalents proceeding to methane in sediments supplemented with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides was compensated for by a corresponding increase of electron equivalents in ferrous iron. These results indicate that iron reduction can outcompete methanogenic food chains for sediment organic matter. Thus, when amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides are available in anaerobic sediments, the transfer of electrons from organic matter to ferric iron can be a major pathway for organic matter decomposition.

1,294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of applications such as catalysis and in biomedicine. This review discusses the properties, applications, and syntheses of three magnetic iron oxides – hematite, magnetite, and maghemite – and outlines methods of preparation that allow control over the size, morphology, surface treatment and magnetic properties of their nanoparticles. Some challenges to further development of these materials and methods are also presented.

1,008 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202212
2021367
2020402
2019380
2018364
2017384