About: Hematoma is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 15845 publications have been published within this topic receiving 219751 citations. The topic is also known as: Large blood clotting.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Scripps Research Institute1, Tufts University2, Cleveland Clinic3, Duke University4, University of California, San Diego5, University of Pittsburgh6, Ruhr University Bochum7, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center8, Yale University9, Columbia University10, Rhode Island Hospital11, Heidelberg University12, Boston University13, University of Iowa14, Harvard University15
TL;DR: It is indicated that site of occlusion, time to recanalization, and time to treatment are important variables in acute stroke intervention with this agent.
Abstract: An open angiography-based, dose rate escalation study on the effect of intravenous infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) on cerebral arterial recanalization in patients with acute focal cerebral ischemia was performed at 16 centers. Arterial occlusions consistent with acute ischemia in the carotid or vertebrobasilar territory in the absence of detectable intracerebral hemorrhage were prerequisites for treatment. After the 60-minute rt-PA infusion, arterial perfusion was assessed by repeat angiography and computed tomography scans were performed at 24 hours to assess hemorrhagic transformation. Of 139 patients with symptoms of focal ischemia, 80.6% (112) had complete occlusion of the primary vessel at a mean of 5.4 +/- 1.7 hours after symptom onset. No dose rate response of cerebral arterial recanalization was observed in 93 patients who completed the rt-PA infusion. Middle cerebral artery division (M2) and branch (M3) occlusions were more likely to undergo recanalization by 60 minutes than were internal carotid artery occlusions. Hemorrhagic infarction occurred in 20.2% and parenchymatous hematoma in 10.6% of patients over all dose rates, while neurological worsening accompanied hemorrhagic transformation (hemorrhagic infarction and parenchymatous hematoma) in 9.6% of patients. All findings were within prospective safety guidelines. No dose rate correlation with hemorrhagic infarction, parenchymatous hematoma, or both was seen. Hemorrhagic transformation occurred significantly more frequently in patients receiving treatment at least 6 hours after symptom onset. No relationship between hemorrhagic transformation and recanalization was observed. This study indicates that site of occlusion, time to recanalization, and time to treatment are important variables in acute stroke intervention with this agent.
TL;DR: Hematoma growth is an independent determinant of both mortality and functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage and is an important therapeutic strategy.
Abstract: Background Although volume of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a predictor of mortality, it is unknown whether subsequent hematoma growth further increases the risk of death or poor functional outcome. Methods To determine if hematoma growth independently predicts poor outcome, the authors performed an individual meta-analysis of patients with spontaneous ICH who had CT within 3 hours of onset and 24-hour follow-up. Placebo patients were pooled from three trials investigating dosing, safety, and efficacy of rFVIIa (n = 115), and 103 patients from the Cincinnati study (total 218). Other baseline factors included age, gender, blood glucose, blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and location. Results Overall, 72.9% of patients exhibited some degree of hematoma growth. Percentage hematoma growth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05 per 10% increase [95% CI: 1.03, 1.08; p Conclusions Hematoma growth is an independent determinant of both mortality and functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Attenuation of growth is an important therapeutic strategy.
TL;DR: The delay from injury to operation was the factor of greatest therapeutic importance, and patients who underwent surgery within the first four hours had a 30 per cent mortality rate, as compared with 90 percent in those who had surgery after four hours.
Abstract: To discover which factors contributed to recovery after surgical intracranial decompression, we reviewed the records of 82 consecutive comatose patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) who were treated in a single center under a uniform protocol. The delay from injury to operation was the factor of greatest therapeutic importance. Patients who underwent surgery within the first four hours had a 30 per cent mortality rate, as compared with 90 percent in those who had surgery after four hours (P less than 0.0001). Other important prognostic variables included results of the initial neurologic examination, sex, multimodality-evoked potentials, and postoperative intracranial pressure (ICP). If all patients with traumatic ASDH were taken directly to hospitals equipped to diagnose and remove the hematoma within four hours of injury, mortality rates could be reduced considerably.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the relevance of hematoma resolution processes as a target for ICH therapy and present potential clinically relevant molecular targets that could be harnessed to treat secondary injury associated with ICH injury.
Abstract: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an often fatal type of stroke that kills ≈30 000 people annually in the United States. If the patient survives the ictus, then the resulting hematoma within brain parenchyma triggers a series of adverse events causing secondary insults and severe neurological deficits. This article discusses selected aspects of secondary brain injury after ICH and outlines key mechanisms associated with hematoma toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally, this review discusses the relevance of hematoma resolution processes as a target for ICH therapy and presents potential clinically relevant molecular targets that could be harnessed to treat secondary injury associated with ICH injury.
TL;DR: Doctors should require strict indications for the use of spinal anesthetic procedures in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy, even if the incidence of spinal hematoma following this combination is low, and close monitoring of the neurological status of the patient is warranted.
Abstract: Spinal hematoma has been described in autopsies since 1682 and as a clinical diagnosis since 1867. It is a rare and usually severe neurological disorder that, without adequate treatment, often leads to death or permanent neurological deficit. Epidural as well as subdural and subarachnoid hematomas have been investigated. Some cases of subarachnoid spinal hematoma may present with symptoms similar to those of cerebral hemorrhage. The literature offers no reliable estimates of the incidence of spinal hematoma, perhaps due to the rarity of this disorder. In the present work, 613 case studies published between 1826 and 1996 have been evaluated, which represents the largest review on this topic to date. Most cases of spinal hematoma have a multifactorial etiology whose individual components are not all understood in detail. In up to a third of cases (29.7%) of spinal hematoma, no etiological factor can be identified as the cause of the bleeding. Following idiopathic spinal hematoma, cases related to anticoagulant therapy and vascular malformations represent the second and third most common categories. Spinal and epidural anesthetic procedures in combination with anticoagulant therapy represent the fifth most common etiological group and spinal and epidural anesthetic procedures alone represent the tenth most common cause of spinal hematoma. Anticoagulant therapy alone probably does not trigger spinal hemorrhage. It is likely that there must additionally be a "locus minoris resistentiae" together with increased pressure in the interior vertebral venous plexus in order to cause spinal hemorrhage. The latter two factors are thought to be sufficient to cause spontaneous spinal hematoma. Physicians should require strict indications for the use of spinal anesthetic procedures in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy, even if the incidence of spinal hematoma following this combination is low. If spinal anesthetic procedures are performed before, during, or after anticoagulant treatment, close monitoring of the neurological status of the patient is warranted. Time limits regarding the use of anticoagulant therapy before or after spinal anesthetic procedures have been proposed and are thought to be safe for patients. Investigation of the coagulation status alone does not necessarily provide an accurate estimate of the risk of hemorrhage. The most important measure for recognizing patients at high risk is a thorough clinical history. Most spinal hematomas are localized dorsally to the spinal cord at the level of the cervicothoracic and thoracolumbar regions. Subarachnoid hematomas can extend along the entire length of the subarachnoid space. Epidural and subdural spinal hematoma present with intense, knife-like pain at the location of the hemorrhage ("coup de poignard") that may be followed in some cases by a pain-free interval of minutes to days, after which there is progressive paralysis below the affected spinal level. Subarachnoid hematoma can be associated with meningitis symptoms, disturbances of consciousness, and epileptic seizures and is often misdiagnosed as cerebral hemorrhage based on these symptoms. Most patients are between 55 and 70 years old. Of all patients with spinal hemorrhage, 63.9% are men. The examination of first choice is magnetic resonance imaging. The treatment of choice is surgical decompression. Of the patients investigated in the present work, 39.6% experienced complete recovery. The less severe the preoperative symptoms are and the more quickly surgical decompression can be performed, the better are the chances for complete recovery. It is therefore essential to recognize the relatively typical clinical presentation of spinal hematoma in a timely manner to allow correct diagnostic and therapeutic measures to be taken to maximize the patient's chance of complete recovery.
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