About: Herd immunity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2124 publications have been published within this topic receiving 60107 citations. The topic is also known as: community immunity & herd effect.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The effect of influenza on mortality is much greater in Japan than in the United States and can be measured about equally well in terms of deaths from all causes and deaths attributed to pneumonia or influenza.
Abstract: Background Influenza epidemics lead to increased mortality, principally among elderly persons and others at high risk, and in most developed countries, influenza-control efforts focus on the vaccination of this group. Japan, however, once based its policy for the control of influenza on the vaccination of schoolchildren. From 1962 to 1987, most Japanese schoolchildren were vaccinated against influenza. For more than a decade, vaccination was mandatory, but the laws were relaxed in 1987 and repealed in 1994; subsequently, vaccination rates dropped to low levels. When most schoolchildren were vaccinated, it is possible that herd immunity against influenza was achieved in Japan. If this was the case, both the incidence of influenza and mortality attributed to influenza should have been reduced among older persons. Methods We analyzed the monthly rates of death from all causes and death attributed to pneumonia and influenza, as well as census data and statistics on the rates of vaccination for both Japan and ...
TL;DR: This new popularity of herd immunity comes as a consequence of several recent major achievements of vaccination programs, i.e.: the historic success of the global smallpox eradication program; dramatic increases in vaccination coverage stimulated by national programs and by the Expanded Programme on Immunization.
Abstract: Herd immunity has to do with the protection of populations from infection which is brought about by the presence of immune individuals. The concept has a special aura, in its implication of an extension of the protection imparted by an immunization program beyond vaccinated to unvaccinated individuals and in its apparent provision of a means to eliminate totally some infectious diseases. It is a recurrent theme in the medical literature and has been discussed frequently during the past decade. This new popularity comes as a consequence of several recent major achievements of vaccination programs, i.e.: the historic success of the global smallpox eradication program; dramatic increases in vaccination coverage stimulated by national programs and by the Expanded Programme on Immunization; the commitment of several countries to eradicate measles; and international dedication to eliminate neonatal tetanus and to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world by the year 2000.'
TL;DR: Historical, epidemiologic, theoretical, and pragmatic public health perspectives on the concept of herd immunity are provided.
Abstract: The term "herd immunity" is widely used but carries a variety of meanings. Some authors use it to describe the proportion immune among individuals in a population. Others use it with reference to a particular threshold proportion of immune individuals that should lead to a decline in incidence of infection. Still others use it to refer to a pattern of immunity that should protect a population from invasion of a new infection. A common implication of the term is that the risk of infection among susceptible individuals in a population is reduced by the presence and proximity of immune individuals (this is sometimes referred to as "indirect protection" or a "herd effect"). We provide brief historical, epidemiologic, theoretical, and pragmatic public health perspectives on this concept.
TL;DR: In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences, and vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities.
Abstract: In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health.
TL;DR: Around one child in every three was infected with 2009 pandemic H1N1 in the first wave of infection in regions with a high incidence, ten times more than estimated from clinical surveillance.
Abstract: Summary Background Knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. Methods In this cross-sectional serological survey, we obtained 1403 serum samples taken in 2008 (before the first wave of H1N1 infection) and 1954 serum samples taken in August and September, 2009 (after the first wave of infection) as part of the annual collection for the Health Protection Agency seroepidemiology programme from patients accessing health care in England. Antibody titres were measured by use of haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation assays. We calculated the proportion of samples with antibodies to pandemic H1N1 virus in 2008 by age group and compared the proportion of samples with haemagglutination inhibition titre 1:32 or more (deemed a protective response) before the first wave of infection with the proportion after the first wave. Findings In the baseline serum samples from 2008, haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation antibody titres increased significantly with age ( F test p Interpretation Around one child in every three was infected with 2009 pandemic H1N1 in the first wave of infection in regions with a high incidence, ten times more than estimated from clinical surveillance. Pre-existing antibody in older age groups protects against infection. Children have an important role in transmission of influenza and would be a key target group for vaccination both for their protection and for the protection of others through herd immunity. Funding National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.
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