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Heritiera fomes

About: Heritiera fomes is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 128 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1911 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Sundri.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Summary1 Associations between abiotic variables and patterns of species distribution and abundance are a major preoccupation of community ecologists. In many habitats, this association is manifest in discrete zones of vegetation. 2 We used statistical methods to examine tree species distribution patterns in relatively undisturbed regions of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. We tested the hypothesis that mangroves occur in discrete zones with respect to elevation. These data were gathered with explicit attention to local and regional differences in edaphic characteristics so that species-environment relationships could be analysed at several spatial scales. 3 Correlations were also assessed between mangrove species composition and edaphic variables that co-vary with elevation, i.e. salinity, field capacity, cation exchange capacity, percentage silt, and mangrove physiognomic category (slope, basin, levee and flat). 4 Quantitative statistical analysis using randomization techniques failed to detect species zonation along any of 33 individual 200-m transects, within 1-km2 blocks, or within 1200-km2 regions. 5 Canonical correspondence analysis relating edaphic variables to species distributions accounted for a total of only 24% of the variance in species composition. 6 Our data suggest that the absence of zonation in the Bangladesh Sundarbans reflects the underlying biology of the system and is not an artefact of long-term human disturbance.

129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Sundarbans, the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world, covers 6,017 km2 of the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham., Excoecaria agallocha L. and Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou jointly cover 95% of the forest area. In this study, the results of four forest inventories have been analyzed to understand observed vegetation dynamics of the Sundarbans from 1926 to 1997. The diversity of forest types has been gradually reduced over time, but H. fomes and E. agallocha have maintained their dominance over large portions of the forest. H. fomes is spread over 67% of the vegetated area of the forest, concentrated mostly in the northeastern area, and constitutes 75% of the density of trees with >15 cm dbh. The distribution and stem density of H. fomes show negative relationships with that of E. agallocha and C. decandra. In terms of coverage, E. agallocha is the most common species, spread over 74% of the vegetated area of the forest, and constitutes 39% of the density of trees with >2.5 cm dbh. On a longer timeframe (1926–1997), the dominance (coverage and density of larger diameter trees) of H. fomes as well as that of E. agallocha is declining. Even on parameters such as density of trees with >15 cm dbh, the dominance of E. agallocha is declining at a much greater rate than H. fomes. This observation contradicts the successional schemes proposed by different authors. This might indicate that theorizing successional schemes based on short-term observations on vegetation dynamics is not sufficient. The effect of human interference, changes in hydroedaphic condition and species interaction should be taken into consideration during explaining observed vegetation dynamics. Moreover, the need to understand vegetation trajectories at the micro-scale should be emphasized.

113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Sundarbans (21o30′–22o30′ N and 89o00′–89o55′ E) is the largest mangrove forest in the world. Forests are very important for sequestering atmospheric carbon and mangroves are amongst the most efficient in carbon sequestration. This study presents the estimation of ecosystem carbon (above- and belowground) stock in the Sundarbans using a large scale data sets collected from systematic grid samples throughout the forest. The variation of carbon stock in different vegetation types and in different salinity zones in Sundarbans was investigated. The relationships between carbon stock and different vegetation functional attributes (basal area, mean tree height, crown coverage etc.) were also investigated. The amount of carbon stored varied significantly among vegetation types, salinity zones and vegetation functional attributes (P < 0.05). Sundri (Heritiera fomes) dominated forest types store more ecosystem carbon (360.1 ± 22.71 Mg C ha−1) than other vegetation types. The fresh water zone shows the highest ecosystem carbon stock (336.09 ± 14.74 Mg C ha−1) followed by moderate and strong salinity zones. Salinity was found to enhance belowground carbon stock as revealed by the lowest proportion of belowground carbon stock (57.2 %) with respect to ecosystem carbon in fresh water zone and by the highest (71.9 %) in strong salinity zone. The results also reveal that no matter whether the mangroves are tall or dwarf, a significant amount of carbon is stored into the sediment. The vegetation attributes (basal area and mean tree height) of the dominant mangrove species in each vegetation type were identified as the key indicator of ecosystem carbon stock. We recommended some generalized regression equations to predict ecosystem carbon stock from basal area or mean tree height.

111 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The synthesized nanoparticles possess strong biological activities in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antibacterial, potentials which could be utilized in various biological applications by the cosmetic, food and biomedical industries.
Abstract: Green synthesis by using biological agents has been a simple and effective approach for the synthesis of various forms of nanoparticles. The present investigation was intended to synthesis Ag-NPs and ZnO-NPs under photo-condition using the aqueous extracts of two mangrove plants namely Heritiera fomes and Sonneratia apetala and evaluate their potential biomedical applications. The formation of nanoparticles in aqueous solution of H. fomes and S. apetala under exposure to sun light was validated by change in color and formation of monodispersed NPs with a narrow particle size distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals the presence of Oxime and other heterocyclic compounds to be the most probable compounds responsible for the reduction and stability of nanoparticles in the solutions. The synthesized NPs displayed moderate free radical scavenging properties. The anti-inflammatory potential of ZnO-NPs was recorded to be comparatively higher than that of Ag-NP with 79% and 69.1% respectively. The Ag-NPs with unique properties of inhibiting α-amylase (91.14% and 89.16%) were found to be significantly high indicating its antidiabetic property. The synthesized NPs showed varied zone of inhibition (9-16mm) against the tested microbial pathogens. The synthesized nanoparticles possess strong biological activities in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antibacterial, potentials which could be utilized in various biological applications by the cosmetic, food and biomedical industries.

93 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: Through their complex network of river channels, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers cover an area of about 1.76 million km2, their boundaries extend across different countries such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal. The Sundarbans are found at the coast of the Ganges River and are known as the world’s single largest mangrove forest with 3.5 percent of the world’s mangroves covering an area of 6017 km2. The Sundarbans wetlands act as a natural shield that protects the coastal area from storm surges and cyclones in pre and post monsoon periods. However, due to increased in irrigation of agriculture, industrial activity and the diversion of Ganges water at Farakka Barrage (India) in early 1975, both siltation and salinity have increased in the Sundarbans which is threatening the Sundarbans ecosystems. Consequently the dominant Sundari (Heritiera fomes) and Goran (Ceriops decendra) are affected by top-dying disease which is recognized as a key management concern. The Ganges water sharing is not just a geo-techno-political problem; it is also a humanitarian problem. So, interaction and educational awareness between concerned states are of great significant. The objective of this paper is to make a contribution towards the development and implementation of management plan for mangrove wetlands resources and to ensure that fresh water is supplied to the Sundarbans by the Ganges. Water salinity simulation and modeling would be a proper tool for decision making and allow planners to protect the Sundarbans ecosystems in future.

79 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202112
202013
20198
20182
201712
20168