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Heterogeneous network

About: Heterogeneous network is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19635 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 316561 citation(s).


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The WINS network represents a new monitoring and control capability for applications in such industries as transportation, manufacturing, health care, environmental oversight, and safety and security, and opportunities depend on development of a scalable, low-cost, sensor-network architecture.
Abstract: W ireless integrated network sensors (WINS) provide distributed network and Internet access to sensors, controls, and processors deeply embedded in equipment, facilities, and the environment. The WINS network represents a new monitoring and control capability for applications in such industries as transportation, manufacturing, health care, environmental oversight, and safety and security. WINS combine microsensor technology and low-power signal processing, computation, and low-cost wireless networking in a compact system. Recent advances in integrated circuit technology have enabled construction of far more capable yet inexpensive sensors, radios, and processors, allowing mass production of sophisticated systems linking the physical world to digital data networks [2–5]. Scales range from local to global for applications in medicine, security, factory automation, environmental monitoring, and condition-based maintenance. Compact geometry and low cost allow WINS to be embedded and distributed at a fraction of the cost of conventional wireline sensor and actuator systems. WINS opportunities depend on development of a scalable, low-cost, sensor-network architecture. Such applications require delivery of sensor information to the user at a low bit rate through low-power transceivers. Continuous sensor signal processing enables the constant monitoring of events in an environment in which short message packets would suffice. Future applications of distributed embedded processors and sensors will require vast numbers of devices. Conventional methods of sensor networking represent an impractical demand on cable installation and network bandwidth. Processing at the source would drastically reduce the financial, computational, and management burden on communication system

3,390 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1999
TL;DR: It is found that the SPIN protocols can deliver 60% more data for a given amount of energy than conventional approaches, and that, in terms of dissemination rate and energy usage, the SPlN protocols perform close to the theoretical optimum.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a family of adaptive protocols, called SPIN (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation), that efficiently disseminates information among sensors in an energy-constrained wireless sensor network. Nodes running a SPIN communication protocol name their data using high-level data descriptors, called meta-data. They use meta-data negotiations to eliminate the transmission of redundant data throughout the network. In addition, SPIN nodes can base their communication decisions both upon application-specific knowledge of the data and upon knowledge of the resources that are available to them. This allows the sensors to efficiently distribute data given a limited energy supply. We simulate and analyze the performance of two specific SPIN protocols, comparing them to other possible approaches and a theoretically optimal protocol. We find that the SPIN protocols can deliver 60% more data for a given amount of energy than conventional approaches. We also find that, in terms of dissemination rate and energy usage, the SPlN protocols perform close to the theoretical optimum.

2,493 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that using COPE at the forwarding layer, without modifying routing and higher layers, increases network throughput, and the gains vary from a few percent to several folds depending on the traffic pattern, congestion level, and transport protocol.
Abstract: This paper proposes COPE, a new architecture for wireless mesh networks. In addition to forwarding packets, routers mix (i.e., code) packets from different sources to increase the information content of each transmission. We show that intelligently mixing packets increases network throughput. Our design is rooted in the theory of network coding. Prior work on network coding is mainly theoretical and focuses on multicast traffic. This paper aims to bridge theory with practice; it addresses the common case of unicast traffic, dynamic and potentially bursty flows, and practical issues facing the integration of network coding in the current network stack. We evaluate our design on a 20-node wireless network, and discuss the results of the first testbed deployment of wireless network coding. The results show that using COPE at the forwarding layer, without modifying routing and higher layers, increases network throughput. The gains vary from a few percent to several folds depending on the traffic pattern, congestion level, and transport protocol.

2,169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Feb 2014
TL;DR: Measurements and capacity studies are surveyed to assess mmW technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments and it is shown that mmW systems can offer more than an order of magnitude increase in capacity over current state-of-the-art 4G cellular networks at current cell densities.
Abstract: Millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are a new frontier for cellular communication that offers the promise of orders of magnitude greater bandwidths combined with further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing from multielement antenna arrays. This paper surveys measurements and capacity studies to assess this technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments. The conclusions are extremely encouraging; measurements in New York City at 28 and 73 GHz demonstrate that, even in an urban canyon environment, significant non-line-of-sight (NLOS) outdoor, street-level coverage is possible up to approximately 200 m from a potential low-power microcell or picocell base station. In addition, based on statistical channel models from these measurements, it is shown that mmW systems can offer more than an order of magnitude increase in capacity over current state-of-the-art 4G cellular networks at current cell densities. Cellular systems, however, will need to be significantly redesigned to fully achieve these gains. Specifically, the requirement of highly directional and adaptive transmissions, directional isolation between links, and significant possibilities of outage have strong implications on multiple access, channel structure, synchronization, and receiver design. To address these challenges, the paper discusses how various technologies including adaptive beamforming, multihop relaying, heterogeneous network architectures, and carrier aggregation can be leveraged in the mmW context.

2,099 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The need for an alternative strategy, where low power nodes are overlaid within a macro network, creating what is referred to as a heterogeneous network is discussed, and a high-level overview of the 3GPP LTE air interface, network nodes, and spectrum allocation options is provided, along with the enabling mechanisms.
Abstract: As the spectral efficiency of a point-to-point link in cellular networks approaches its theoretical limits, with the forecasted explosion of data traffic, there is a need for an increase in the node density to further improve network capacity. However, in already dense deployments in today's networks, cell splitting gains can be severely limited by high inter-cell interference. Moreover, high capital expenditure cost associated with high power macro nodes further limits viability of such an approach. This article discusses the need for an alternative strategy, where low power nodes are overlaid within a macro network, creating what is referred to as a heterogeneous network. We survey current state of the art in heterogeneous deployments and focus on 3GPP LTE air interface to describe future trends. A high-level overview of the 3GPP LTE air interface, network nodes, and spectrum allocation options is provided, along with the enabling mechanisms for heterogeneous deployments. Interference management techniques that are critical for LTE heterogeneous deployments are discussed in greater detail. Cell range expansion, enabled through cell biasing and adaptive resource partitioning, is seen as an effective method to balance the load among the nodes in the network and improve overall trunking efficiency. An interference cancellation receiver plays a crucial role in ensuring acquisition of weak cells and reliability of control and data reception in the presence of legacy signals.

1,666 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202215
2021618
2020898
20191,067
20181,075
20171,364