About: Histidine is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9128 publications have been published within this topic receiving 303740 citations. The topic is also known as: L-His & (S)-4-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)imidazole.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The chapter discusses the physiological importance of protein oxidation, and increases in carbonyl levels are examined in several diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury to heart muscles, and muscle damage caused by exhaustive exercise.
Abstract: Publisher Summary Oxygen radicals are implicated as an important cause of oxidative modification of proteins which may lead to their rapid degradation. Among the various oxidative modifications of amino acids in proteins, carbonyl formation may be an early marker for protein oxidation. This type of alteration is characterized as metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. The molecular mechanisms of this type of protein oxidation are discussed in this chapter. Redox cycling cations, such as Fe 2+ or Cu 2+ can bind to cation binding locations on proteins and with the aid of further attack by H 2 O 2 or O 2 can transform side-chain amine groups on several amino acids into carbonyls. The most likely amino acid residues to form carbonyl derivatives are lysine, arginine, proline, and histidine. Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins is not necessarily the only mechanism by which carbonyls are introduced into proteins. The chapter discusses the physiological importance of protein oxidation. Increases in carbonyl levels are examined in several diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury to heart muscles, and muscle damage caused by exhaustive exercise.
TL;DR: The alpha/beta hydrolase fold as mentioned in this paper is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function, including the serine protease catalytic triad.
Abstract: We have identified a new protein fold--the alpha/beta hydrolase fold--that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These enzymes have diverged from a common ancestor so as to preserve the arrangement of the catalytic residues, not the binding site. They all have a catalytic triad, the elements of which are borne on loops which are the best-conserved structural features in the fold. Only the histidine in the nucleophile-histidine-acid catalytic triad is completely conserved, with the nucleophile and acid loops accommodating more than one type of amino acid. The unique topological and sequence arrangement of the triad residues produces a catalytic triad which is, in a sense, a mirror-image of the serine protease catalytic triad. There are now four groups of enzymes which contain catalytic triads and which are related by convergent evolution towards a stable, useful active site: the eukaryotic serine proteases, the cysteine proteases, subtilisins and the alpha/beta hydrolase fold enzymes.
TL;DR: It is found that pairs (dimers) of aromatic side chain amino acids preferentially align their respective aromatic rings in an off-centered parallel orientation, which is referred to as parallel displaced pi-stacking and is consistent with ab initio and molecular mechanics calculations of benzene dimer.
Abstract: A representative set of high resolution x-ray crystal structures of nonhomologous proteins have been examined to determine the preferred positions and orientations of noncovalent interactions between the aromatic side chains of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, and tryptophan. To study the primary interactions between aromatic amino acids, care has been taken to examine only isolated pairs (dimers) of amino acids because trimers and higher order clusters of aromatic amino acids behave differently than their dimer counterparts. We find that pairs (dimers) of aromatic side chain amino acids preferentially align their respective aromatic rings in an off-centered parallel orientation. Further, we find that this parallel-displaced structure is 0.5–0.75 kcal/mol more stable than a T-shaped structure for phenylalanine interactions and 1 kcal/mol more stable than a T-shaped structure for the full set of aromatic side chain amino acids. This experimentally determined structure and energy difference is consistent with ab initio and molecular mechanics calculations of benzene dimer, however, the results are not in agreement with previously published analyses of aromatic amino acids in proteins. The preferred orientation is referred to as parallel displaced π-stacking.
TL;DR: Polarization of the system due to the buried negative charge of the aspartic acid residue would make the serine oxygen strongly nucleophilic and would explain its reactivity towards amides and esters.
Abstract: The catalytic site of chymotrypsin contains an interior aspartic acid hydrogen-bonded to a histidine which in its turn is hydrogen-bonded to a serine. Polarization of the system due to the buried negative charge of the aspartic acid residue would make the serine oxygen strongly nucleophilic and would explain its reactivity towards amides and esters.
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