About: Histogram is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21034 publications have been published within this topic receiving 356620 citations.
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TL;DR: The Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM) as mentioned in this paper is an extension of Ferrenberg and Swendsen's multiple histogram technique for complex biomolecular Hamiltonians.
Abstract: The Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM), an extension of Ferrenberg and Swendsen's Multiple Histogram Technique, has been applied for the first time on complex biomolecular Hamiltonians. The method is presented here as an extension of the Umbrella Sampling method for free-energy and Potential of Mean Force calculations. This algorithm possesses the following advantages over methods that are currently employed: (1) It provides a built-in estimate of sampling errors thereby yielding objective estimates of the optimal location and length of additional simulations needed to achieve a desired level of precision; (2) it yields the “best” value of free energies by taking into account all the simulations so as to minimize the statistical errors; (3) in addition to optimizing the links between simulations, it also allows multiple overlaps of probability distributions for obtaining better estimates of the free-energy differences. By recasting the Ferrenberg–Swendsen Multiple Histogram equations in a form suitable for molecular mechanics type Hamiltonians, we have demonstrated the feasibility and robustness of this method by applying it to a test problem of the generation of the Potential of Mean Force profile of the pseudorotation phase angle of the sugar ring in deoxyadenosine. © 1992 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
TL;DR: In this paper, color histograms of multicolored objects provide a robust, efficient cue for indexing into a large database of models, and they can differentiate among a large number of objects.
Abstract: Computer vision is moving into a new era in which the aim is to develop visual skills for robots that allow them to interact with a dynamic, unconstrained environment. To achieve this aim, new kinds of vision algorithms need to be developed which run in real time and subserve the robot's goals. Two fundamental goals are determining the identity of an object with a known location, and determining the location of a known object. Color can be successfully used for both tasks. This dissertation demonstrates that color histograms of multicolored objects provide a robust, efficient cue for indexing into a large database of models. It shows that color histograms are stable object representations in the presence of occlusion and over change in view, and that they can differentiate among a large number of objects. For solving the identification problem, it introduces a technique called Histogram Intersection, which matches model and image histograms and a fast incremental version of Histogram Intersection which allows real-time indexing into a large database of stored models. It demonstrates techniques for dealing with crowded scenes and with models with similar color signatures. For solving the location problem it introduces an algorithm called Histogram Backprojection which performs this task efficiently in crowded scenes.
TL;DR: A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed, which employs a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient as similarity measure, and uses the mean shift procedure to perform the optimization.
Abstract: A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed. The feature histogram-based target representations are regularized by spatial masking with an isotropic kernel. The masking induces spatially-smooth similarity functions suitable for gradient-based optimization, hence, the target localization problem can be formulated using the basin of attraction of the local maxima. We employ a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient as similarity measure, and use the mean shift procedure to perform the optimization. In the presented tracking examples, the new method successfully coped with camera motion, partial occlusions, clutter, and target scale variations. Integration with motion filters and data association techniques is also discussed. We describe only a few of the potential applications: exploitation of background information, Kalman tracking using motion models, and face tracking.
TL;DR: This paper investigates the properties of a metric between two distributions, the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), for content-based image retrieval, and compares the retrieval performance of the EMD with that of other distances.
Abstract: We investigate the properties of a metric between two distributions, the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), for content-based image retrieval. The EMD is based on the minimal cost that must be paid to transform one distribution into the other, in a precise sense, and was first proposed for certain vision problems by Peleg, Werman, and Rom. For image retrieval, we combine this idea with a representation scheme for distributions that is based on vector quantization. This combination leads to an image comparison framework that often accounts for perceptual similarity better than other previously proposed methods. The EMD is based on a solution to the transportation problem from linear optimization, for which efficient algorithms are available, and also allows naturally for partial matching. It is more robust than histogram matching techniques, in that it can operate on variable-length representations of the distributions that avoid quantization and other binning problems typical of histograms. When used to compare distributions with the same overall mass, the EMD is a true metric. In this paper we focus on applications to color and texture, and we compare the retrieval performance of the EMD with that of other distances.
TL;DR: 40 selected thresholding methods from various categories are compared in the context of nondestructive testing applications as well as for document images, and the thresholding algorithms that perform uniformly better over nonde- structive testing and document image applications are identified.
Abstract: We conduct an exhaustive survey of image thresholding methods, categorize them, express their formulas under a uniform notation, and finally carry their performance comparison. The thresholding methods are categorized according to the information they are exploiting, such as histogram shape, measurement space clustering, entropy, object attributes, spatial correlation, and local gray-level surface. 40 selected thresholding methods from various categories are compared in the context of nondestructive testing applications as well as for document images. The comparison is based on the combined performance measures. We identify the thresholding algorithms that perform uniformly better over nonde- structive testing and document image applications. © 2004 SPIE and IS&T. (DOI: 10.1117/1.1631316)
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