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HOMO/LUMO

About: HOMO/LUMO is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 14851 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 334956 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The challenges for further development of Li rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles are reviewed. Most important is safety, which requires development of a nonflammable electrolyte with either a larger window between its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or a constituent (or additive) that can develop rapidly a solid/ electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer to prevent plating of Li on a carbon anode during a fast charge of the battery. A high Li-ion conductivity (σ Li > 10 ―4 S/cm) in the electrolyte and across the electrode/ electrolyte interface is needed for a power battery. Important also is an increase in the density of the stored energy, which is the product of the voltage and capacity of reversible Li insertion/extraction into/from the electrodes. It will be difficult to design a better anode than carbon, but carbon requires formation of an SEI layer, which involves an irreversible capacity loss. The design of a cathode composed of environmentally benign, low-cost materials that has its electrochemical potential μ C well-matched to the HOMO of the electrolyte and allows access to two Li atoms per transition-metal cation would increase the energy density, but it is a daunting challenge. Two redox couples can be accessed where the cation redox couples are "pinned" at the top of the O 2p bands, but to take advantage of this possibility, it must be realized in a framework structure that can accept more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation. Moreover, such a situation represents an intrinsic voltage limit of the cathode, and matching this limit to the HOMO of the electrolyte requires the ability to tune the intrinsic voltage limit. Finally, the chemical compatibility in the battery must allow a long service life.

7,138 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The resulting fluorinated polymer PBnDT-FTAZ outperforms poly(3-hexylthiophene), the current medium band gap polymer of choice, and thus is a viable candidate for use in highly efficient tandem cells.
Abstract: Recent research advances on conjugated polymers for photovoltaic devices have focused on creating low band gap materials, but a suitable band gap is only one of many performance criteria required for a successful conjugated polymer. This work focuses on the design of two medium band gap (∼2.0 eV) copolymers for use in photovoltaic cells which are designed to possess a high hole mobility and low highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels. The resulting fluorinated polymer PBnDT−FTAZ exhibits efficiencies above 7% when blended with [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester in a typical bulk heterojunction, and efficiencies above 6% are still maintained at an active layer thicknesses of 1 μm. PBnDT−FTAZ outperforms poly(3-hexylthiophene), the current medium band gap polymer of choice, and thus is a viable candidate for use in highly efficient tandem cells. PBnDT−FTAZ also highlights other performance criteria which contribute to high photovoltaic efficiency, bes...

1,413 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study reveals that the alternating copolymer HOMO energy level is mainly fixed by the carbazole moiety, whereas the LUMO energylevel is mainly related to the nature of the electron-withdrawing comonomer.
Abstract: On the basis of theoretical models and calculations, several alternating polymeric structures have been investigated to develop optimized poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for solar cell applications. Selected low band gap alternating copolymers have been obtained via a Suzuki coupling reaction. A good correlation between DFT theoretical calculations performed on model compounds and the experimental HOMO, LUMO, and band gap energies of the corresponding polymers has been obtained. This study reveals that the alternating copolymer HOMO energy level is mainly fixed by the carbazole moiety, whereas the LUMO energy level is mainly related to the nature of the electron-withdrawing comonomer. However, solar cell performances are not solely driven by the energy levels of the materials. Clearly, the molecular weight and the overall organization of the polymers are other important key parameters to consider when developing new polymers for solar cells. Preliminary measurements have revealed hole mobilities of about ...

1,337 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2016-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices.
Abstract: Fine energy-level modulations of small-molecule acceptors (SMAs) are realized via subtle chemical modifications on strong electron-withdrawing end-groups. The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices. Finally, a top power conversion efficiency of 12.05% is achieved.

1,178 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concepts of absolute electronegativity, chi, and absolute hardness, eta, are incorporated into molecular orbital theory and useful correlations can now be made between chemical behavior, visible-UV absorption spectra, optical polarizability, ionization potentials, and electron affinities.
Abstract: The concepts of absolute electronegativity, χ, and absolute hardness, η, are incorporated into molecular orbital theory. A graphic and concise definition of hardness is given as twice the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. Useful correlations can now be made between chemical behavior, visible-UV absorption spectra, optical polarizability, ionization potentials, and electron affinities.

978 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202247
2021891
2020841
2019903
2018920
20171,030

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Yongfang Li

55 papers, 3.2K citations

Yong Cao

50 papers, 2.3K citations

Mehmet Karabacak

38 papers, 1.2K citations

Mohammed Bouachrine

34 papers, 265 citations

Xiaowei Zhan

33 papers, 2.6K citations