Topic

# Homomorphic encryption

About: Homomorphic encryption is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4674 publications have been published within this topic receiving 97252 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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02 May 1999

TL;DR: A new trapdoor mechanism is proposed and three encryption schemes are derived : a trapdoor permutation and two homomorphic probabilistic encryption schemes computationally comparable to RSA, which are provably secure under appropriate assumptions in the standard model.

Abstract: This paper investigates a novel computational problem, namely the Composite Residuosity Class Problem, and its applications to public-key cryptography. We propose a new trapdoor mechanism and derive from this technique three encryption schemes : a trapdoor permutation and two homomorphic probabilistic encryption schemes computationally comparable to RSA. Our cryptosystems, based on usual modular arithmetics, are provably secure under appropriate assumptions in the standard model.

7,008 citations

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08 Jan 2012

TL;DR: A novel approach to fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) that dramatically improves performance and bases security on weaker assumptions, using some new techniques recently introduced by Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan (FOCS 2011).

Abstract: We present a novel approach to fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) that dramatically improves performance and bases security on weaker assumptions. A central conceptual contribution in our work is a new way of constructing leveled fully homomorphic encryption schemes (capable of evaluating arbitrary polynomial-size circuits), without Gentry's bootstrapping procedure.Specifically, we offer a choice of FHE schemes based on the learning with error (LWE) or ring-LWE (RLWE) problems that have 2λ security against known attacks. For RLWE, we have:• A leveled FHE scheme that can evaluate L-level arithmetic circuits with O(λ · L3) per-gate computation -- i.e., computation quasi-linear in the security parameter. Security is based on RLWE for an approximation factor exponential in L. This construction does not use the bootstrapping procedure.• A leveled FHE scheme that uses bootstrapping as an optimization, where the per-gate computation (which includes the bootstrapping procedure) is O(λ2), independent of L. Security is based on the hardness of RLWE for quasi-polynomial factors (as opposed to the sub-exponential factors needed in previous schemes).We obtain similar results to the above for LWE, but with worse performance.Based on the Ring LWE assumption, we introduce a number of further optimizations to our schemes. As an example, for circuits of large width -- e.g., where a constant fraction of levels have width at least λ -- we can reduce the per-gate computation of the bootstrapped version to O(λ), independent of L, by batching the bootstrapping operation. Previous FHE schemes all required Ω(λ3.5) computation per gate.At the core of our construction is a much more effective approach for managing the noise level of lattice-based ciphertexts as homomorphic operations are performed, using some new techniques recently introduced by Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan (FOCS 2011).

1,924 citations

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10 Feb 2005TL;DR: A homomorphic public key encryption scheme that allows the public evaluation of ψ given an encryption of the variables x1,...,xn and can evaluate quadratic multi-variate polynomials on ciphertexts provided the resulting value falls within a small set.

Abstract: Let ψ be a 2-DNF formula on boolean variables x1,...,xn ∈ {0,1}. We present a homomorphic public key encryption scheme that allows the public evaluation of ψ given an encryption of the variables x1,...,xn. In other words, given the encryption of the bits x1,...,xn, anyone can create the encryption of ψ(x1,...,xn). More generally, we can evaluate quadratic multi-variate polynomials on ciphertexts provided the resulting value falls within a small set. We present a number of applications of the system:
In a database of size n, the total communication in the basic step of the Kushilevitz-Ostrovsky PIR protocol is reduced from $\sqrt{n}$ to $\sqrt[3]{n}$.
An efficient election system based on homomorphic encryption where voters do not need to include non-interactive zero knowledge proofs that their ballots are valid. The election system is proved secure without random oracles but still efficient.
A protocol for universally verifiable computation.

1,754 citations

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22 Oct 2011TL;DR: In this article, a fully homomorphic encryption scheme based solely on the (standard) learning with errors (LWE) assumption is presented. But the security of their scheme is based on the worst-case hardness of ''short vector problems'' on arbitrary lattices.

Abstract: We present a fully homomorphic encryption scheme that is based solely on the(standard) learning with errors (LWE) assumption. Applying known results on LWE, the security of our scheme is based on the worst-case hardness of ``short vector problems'' on arbitrary lattices. Our construction improves on previous works in two aspects:\begin{enumerate}\item We show that ``somewhat homomorphic'' encryption can be based on LWE, using a new {\em re-linearization} technique. In contrast, all previous schemes relied on complexity assumptions related to ideals in various rings. \item We deviate from the "squashing paradigm'' used in all previous works. We introduce a new {\em dimension-modulus reduction} technique, which shortens the cipher texts and reduces the decryption complexity of our scheme, {\em without introducing additional assumptions}. \end{enumerate}Our scheme has very short cipher texts and we therefore use it to construct an asymptotically efficient LWE-based single-server private information retrieval (PIR) protocol. The communication complexity of our protocol (in the public-key model) is $k \cdot \polylog(k)+\log \dbs$ bits per single-bit query (here, $k$ is a security parameter).

1,495 citations

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30 May 2010

TL;DR: A fully homomorphic encryption scheme, using only elementary modular arithmetic, that reduces the security of the scheme to finding an approximate integer gcd, and investigates the hardness of this task, building on earlier work of Howgrave-Graham.

Abstract: We construct a simple fully homomorphic encryption scheme, using only elementary modular arithmetic. We use Gentry’s technique to construct a fully homomorphic scheme from a “bootstrappable” somewhat homomorphic scheme. However, instead of using ideal lattices over a polynomial ring, our bootstrappable encryption scheme merely uses addition and multiplication over the integers. The main appeal of our scheme is the conceptual simplicity.
We reduce the security of our scheme to finding an approximate integer gcd – i.e., given a list of integers that are near-multiples of a hidden integer, output that hidden integer. We investigate the hardness of this task, building on earlier work of Howgrave-Graham.

1,486 citations