About: Hop (telecommunications) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1245 publications have been published within this topic receiving 7090 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The tetragonal phase with D4h symmetry as the reference phase for 2D monolayered HOP allows for detailed analysis of the spin-orbit coupling effects and structural transitions with corresponding electronic band folding and provides an interpretive and predictive framework for 3D and 2D layered HOP optoelectronic properties.
Abstract: Layered halide hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells and revisited for light-emitting devices. In this review, we combine classical solid-state physics concepts with simulation tools based on density functional theory to overview the main features of the optoelectronic properties of layered HOP. A detailed comparison between layered and 3D HOP is performed to highlight differences and similarities. In the same way as the cubic phase was established for 3D HOP, here we introduce the tetragonal phase with D4h symmetry as the reference phase for 2D monolayered HOP. It allows for detailed analysis of the spin–orbit coupling effects and structural transitions with corresponding electronic band folding. We further investigate the effects of octahedral tilting on the b...
01 May 1964
TL;DR: In this article, the detection of certain hop oil constituents in Brewing Products is discussed. But the authors focus on detecting hop oil components in a specific type of hops and do not discuss their use in other hops.
Abstract: (1964). Detection of Certain Hop Oil Constituents in Brewing Products. Proceedings. Annual meeting - American Society of Brewing Chemists: Vol. 22, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting 1964, pp. 5-13.
TL;DR: The purposes of this clinical commentary are to review the research that has been done to establish hop tests as a physical performance measure of function, to discuss neuromuscular and biomechanical considerations related to hop performance and dynamic knee stability, and to discuss considerations for future studies that are designed to more clearly define the role of hop test measurements in predicting dynamic knee Stability.
Abstract: Single leg hop tests are commonly used as physical performance measures of function and are also commonly used to evaluate progress in knee rehabilitation programs, particularly for individuals recovering from anterior cruciate ligament injury or reconstructive surgery. While there is some evidence that hop tests may show promise as a predictive measure for identifying individuals who are at risk for recurrent dynamic instability, further work is needed to clearly define the role of hop test measurements for this purpose. The purposes of this clinical commentary are to review the research that has been done to establish hop tests as a physical performance measure of function, to discuss neuromuscular and biomechanical considerations related to hop performance and dynamic knee stability, to discuss existing evidence that supports the potential for hop tests as a predictor of dynamic knee stability, and to discuss considerations for future studies that are designed to more clearly define the role of hop tests in predicting dynamic knee stability.
TL;DR: The hop cones of the female plant of the common hop species Humulus lupulus L. are grown almost exclusively for the brewing industry as discussed by the authors, and the hop resins found in the lupulin glands of the hop cones are discussed in detail.
Abstract: The hop cones of the female plant of the common hop species Humulus lupulus L. are grown almost exclusively for the brewing industry. Only the cones of the female plants are able to secrete the fine yellow resinous powder (i.e. lupulin glands). It is in these lupulin glands that the main brewing principles of hops, the resins and essential oils, are synthesized and accumulated. Hops are of interest to the brewer since they impart the typical bitter taste and aroma to beer and are responsible for the perceived hop character. In addition to the comfortable bitterness and the refreshing hoppy aroma delivered by hops, the hop acids also contribute to the overall microbial stability of beer. Another benefit of the hop resins is that they help enhance and stabilize beer foam and promote foam lacing. In an attempt to understand these contributions, the very complex nature of the chemical composition of hops is reviewed. First, a general overview of the hop chemistry and nomenclature is presented. Then, the different hop resins found in the lupulin glands of the hop cones are discussed in detail. The major hop bitter acids (α- and β-acids) and the latest findings on the absolute configuration of the cis and trans iso-α-acids are discussed. Special attention is given to the hard resins; the known δ-resin is reviewed and the e-resin is introduced. Recent data on the bittering potential and the antimicrobial properties of both hard resin fractions are disclosed. Attention is also given to the numerous essential oil constituents as well as their contributions to beer aroma. In addition to the aroma contribution of the well-known essential oil compounds, a number of recently identified sulfur compounds and their impact on beer aroma are reviewed. The hop polyphenols and their potential health benefits are also addressed. Subsequently, the importance of hops in brewing is examined and the contributions of hops to beer quality are explained. Finally, the beer and hop market of the last century, as well as the new trends in brewing, are discussed in detail. Hop research is an ever growing field of central importance to the brewing industry, even in areas that are not traditionally associated with hops and brewing. This article attempts to give a general overview of the different areas of hop research while assessing the latest advances in hop science and their impact on brewing. Copyright © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
TL;DR: Hop research is a wide field, therefore in this review only selected topics are reviewed as mentioned in this paper, however hop research was only an ancillary research field for decades, during the last ten years more universities and breweries have determined that hops must play a meaningful role in their research efforts.
Abstract: Although hop technology has been a substantial part of brewing science for the last 130 years, we are still far from claiming to know everything about hops. As hops are considered primarily as a flavour ingredient for beer, with the added benefit of having anti-microbial effects, hop research is focused on hops as a bittering agent, as an aroma contributor and as a preservative. Newer fields in hop research are directed toward the relevance of hops in flavour stability, brewing process utilisation, the technological benefits of hops in brewing as well as hops as a source of various substances with many health benefits. However the more we find out about the so-called “spirit of beer” the more questions emerge that demand answers. While hop research was only an ancillary research field for decades, during the last ten years more universities and breweries have determined that hops must play a meaningful role in their research efforts. This article gives an overview of the up-to-date knowledge on hop aroma, hop derived bitterness, and the role of hops in flavour stability as well as light stability. Hop research is a wide field, therefore in this review only selected topics are reviewed. Other research areas such as hops utilisation, the antifoam potential of hops, or the advances in knowledge pertaining to the physiological valuable substances of hops go beyond the scope of this article.
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