Topic

# Hydraulic head

About: Hydraulic head is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2449 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 43923 citation(s). The topic is also known as: piezometric head.

##### Papers

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Abstract: ~. help ed. steady Proc. With the slug test the hydraulic conductivity or transmissibility of an aquifer is determined from the rate of rise of the water level in a well after a certain volume or 'slug' of water is suddenly removed from the welL. The slug test is simpler and quicker than the Theis pumping test because observation wells and pumping the well are not needed. With the slug test the portion of the aquifer 'sampled' for hydraulic conductivity is smaller than that for the pumping test even though with the latter, most of the head loss also occurs within a relatively small distance of the pumped well and the resulting transmissibility primarily reflects the aquifer conditions near the pumped welL. Essentially instantaneous lowering of the water level in a well can be achieved by quickly removing water with a bailer or by partially or completely submerging an object in the water, letting the water level reach equilibrium, and then quickly removing the object. If the aquifer is very permeable, the water level in the well may rise very rapidly. Such rapid rises can be measured with sensitive pressure transducers and fast-response strip chart recorders or x-y plotters. Also it may be possible to isolate portions of the perforated or screened section of the well with special packers for the slug test. This not only reduces the inflow and hence the rate of rise of the water level in the well, but it also makes it possible to determine the vertical distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. Special packer techniques may have to be developed to obtain a good seal, especially for rough casings or perforations. Effective sealing may be achieved with relatively long sections of inflatable stoppers or tubing. The use of long sections of these materials would also reduce leakage flow from the rest of the well to the isolated section between packers. This flow can occur through gravel envelopes or other permeable zones surrounding the casing. Sections of inflatable tubing may have to be long enough to block off the entire part of the well not used for the slug test. High inflation pressures should be used to minimize volume changes in the tubing due to changing water pressures in the isolated section when the head is lowered. So far, solutions for the slug test have been developed only for completely penetrating wells in confined aquifers. Cooper et at. (1967) derived an equation for the rise or fall of the water level in a well after sudden lowering or raising, respectively. Their equation was based on nonsteady flow to a pumped,

1,077 citations

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Abstract: The most realistic representation of a naturally occurring porous medium is a stochastic set of macroscopic elements in which the values of the three basic hydrogeologic parameters (hydraulic conductivity K, compressibility α, and porosity n) are defined by frequency distributions. A homogeneous formation under this representation is one in which the frequency distributions do not change through space. All soils and geologic formations, even the ones that are homogeneous, show random variations in the values of the hydrogeological parameters through space; that is, they are nonuniform, and a measure of the nonuniformity is provided by the standard deviation of the frequency distributions. If K and α are log normally distributed and n is normally distributed, and if we define Y = log K and C = log α, then the parameters Y, C, and n can be generated from a multivariate normal density function with means μy, μc, and μn, standard deviations σy, σc, and σn, and correlation coefficients ρyc, ρyn, and ρcn The analysis of groundwater flow in nonuniform media requires a stochastic-conceptual approach in which the effects of stochastic parameter distributions on predicted hydraulic heads are analyzed with the aid of a set of Monte Carlo solutions to the pertinent boundary value problems. In this study, two one-dimensional saturated flow problems are analyzed: steady state flow between two specified heads and transient consolidation of a clay layer. The primary output is the statistical distribution of hydraulic head ϕ, through space and time, as indicated by the mean values and their standard deviations Sϕ¯(x, t) Results show that the standard deviations of the input hydrogeologic parameters, particularly σy and σc, are important index properties; changes in their values lead to different responses for even when the means μy, μc, and μn are fixed. The degree of uncertainty associated with hydraulic head predictions increases as the degree of nonuniformity of the porous medium increases. For large values of σy and σc it becomes virtually impossible to obtain meaningful hydraulic head predictions. For transient flow the output distribution of hydraulic head values is almost never normal; in some cases it approaches a uniform distribution. The results of this study throw into question the validity of the hidden assumption that underlies all deterministic groundwater modeling; namely, that it is possible to select a single value for each flow parameter in a homogeneous but nonuniform medium that is somehow representative and hence define an ‘equivalent’ uniform porous medium. For transient flow there may be no way to define an equivalent medium. The fact that nine index parameters rather than three are required to describe a nonuniform geologic formation, the large uncertainties in predicted hydraulic heads for relatively simple flow problems in nonuniform soils, and the contention that there may be no simple way to define an equivalent uniform porous medium all have important implications in the development of groundwater flow theory and in its most fundamental applications.

960 citations

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Abstract: Research on stochastic analysis of subsurface flow has developed rapidly in the last decade, but applications of this approach have been very limited. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how currently available techniques and results can be used to answer important questions about the large-scale behavior of naturally heterogeneous aquifers. Perturbation-based spectral theory, which presumes local statistical homogeneity, provides generic theoretical results for the head variance, effective conductivity tensor, and macrodispersivity tensor in a field. These results emphasize the key role of the variance and spatial correlation scales of the log hydraulic conductivity field. Field information of variances and correlation scales of natural materials is summarized. The validity of some of the generic stochastic results is evaluated through comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations and field observations. A specific field application example is developed to illustrate how the stochastic results are used to estimate large-scale parameters and determine the reliability of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Using typical log conductivity covariance parameters, the effective hydraulic conductivity tensor, and the macrodispersivity tensor are estimated. The calculated head variance, based on the simulated mean hydraulic gradient, is used as a measure of the adequacy of the calculation of the steady state flow model. Discussion emphasizes limitations and extensions of this approach, and ongoing field evaluations of the results.

747 citations

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Abstract: A large-scale field experiment on natural gradient transport of solutes in groundwater has been conducted at a site in Borden, Ontario. Well-defined initial conditions were achieved by the pulse injection of 12 m3 of a uniform solution containing known masses of two inorganic tracers (chloride and bromide) and five halogenated organic chemicals (bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and hexachloroethane). A dense, three-dimensional array of over 5000 sampling points was installed throughout the zone traversed by the solutes. Over 19,900 samples have been collected over a 3-year period. The tracers followed a linear horizontal trajectory at an approximately constant velocity, both of which compare well with expectations based on water table contours and estimates of hydraulic head gradient, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity. The vertical displacement over the duration of the experiment was small. Spreading was much more pronounced in the horizontal longitudinal than in the horizontal transverse direction; vertical spreading was very small. The organic solutes were retarded in mobility, as expected.

612 citations

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Abstract: A large-scale investigation of fracture flow was recently conducted in a granite uranium mine at Fanay-Augeres, France. Its aim was to develop a methodology for the investigation of possible nuclear waste repository sites in crystalline environments, and thus to determine what measurements to make and what models to use in order to predict the flow and transport properties of the medium, i.e., their average behaviors and spatial variabilities at different scales. Four types of data were collected: (1) geometry of the fracture network; (2) local hydraulic properties measured by injection tests in boreholes; (3) global hydraulic behavior from flow rate and piezometric head distribution at a 106 m3 scale; and (4) tracer tests performed at a scale of up to 40 m. A stochastic fracture network model assuming negligible matrix permeability was developed and calibrated essentially on data 1 and 2 above; this was then used to predict data 3 and 4 in an attempt to validate both the parameters and the structure of the model. In this first part, only the flow problem (data 1) is discussed.

572 citations