About: Hydrogen peroxide is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 42583 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1043732 citation(s). The topic is also known as: H2O2 & dioxidane.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Aug 1981-Plant and Cell Physiology
TL;DR: Observations confirm that the electron donor for the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts is L-ascorbate and that the L-ASCorbate is regenerated from DHA by the system: photosystem I-*ferredoxin-*NADP^>glutathione and a preliminary characterization of the chloroplast peroxidase is given.
Abstract: Intact spinach chloroplasts scavenge hydrogen peroxide with a peroxidase that uses a photoreductant as the electron donor, but the activity of ruptured chloroplasts is very low [Nakano and Asada (1980) Plant & Cell Physiol. 21: 1295]. Ruptured spinach chloroplasts recovered their ability to photoreduce hydrogen peroxide with the concomitant evolution of oxygen after the addition of glutathione and dehydroascorbate (DHA). In ruptured chloroplasts, DHA was photoreduced to ascorbate and oxygen was evolved in the process in the presence of glutathione. DHA reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) and a peroxidase whose electron donor is specific to L-ascorbate are localized in chloroplast stroma. These observations confirm that the electron donor for the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts is L-ascorbate and that the L-ascorbate is regenerated from DHA by the system: photosystem I-*ferredoxin-*NADP^>glutathione. A preliminary characterization of the chloroplast peroxidase is given.
TL;DR: A quantitative, spectrophotometric technique for following the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide has been developed for routine studies of catalase kinetics and appears to give lower values forCatalase activity than do titration techniques.
Abstract: Several methods have been developed for following the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by catalase, but these either have not been sufficiently quantitative or have not proved rapid enough to yield reliable data during the critical 1st or 2nd minute of the reaction. Chemical procedures in which residual peroxide is titrated with permanganate (l-3) or an excess of permanganate is measured calorimetrically (4) are accurate except for reaction times of less than a minute, although Lemberg and Foulkes (5) developed a micromethod for obtaining data every 10 seconds (see also Ogura et al. (6)). Considerable variability is unavoidable, however, when samples must-be taken at such short intervals. The manometric method for measuring oxygen evolved from the system proved in detailed studies to be unsuited for following the rapid breakdown of peroxide in which a diffusion process across the liquid-air interface becomes limiting. This is manifested by changes in both the order of the reaction and the rate of evolution of oxygen with variations in the rate of agitation of the reaction mixture (7). Direct measurement of hydrogen peroxide by polarography provides good quantitative data during the 1st minute of the reaction which fit first order kinetics (8). However, an elaborate, special, electronic circuit is needed for such measurements. Furthermore, as pointed out by Bonmschen, Chance, and Theorell (8), this method appears to give lower values for catalase activity than do titration techniques. Preliminary experiments for following the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by observing the decrease in light absorption of peroxide solutions in the ultraviolet were reported by Chance (9) and Chance and Herbert (10). The potentialities of this method have been investigated and a quantitative, spectrophotometric technique for following the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide has been developed for routine studies of catalase kinetics.
TL;DR: Two methods are described for the catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide are: ultraviolet spectrophotometry and permanganate titration and indirect measurements of the decrease of light absorption caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide byCatalase.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the assay of catalases and peroxidases are: (1) catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide; (2) method for crude cell extracts; (3) direct spectrophotometric assay of catalase and peroxidase in cells and tissues; and (4) peroxidase assay by spectrophotometric measurements of the disappearance of hydrogen donor or the appearance of their colored oxidation products. Two methods are described for the catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide are: ultraviolet spectrophotometry and permanganate titration. Ultraviolet spectrophotometryis a method devised, on the basis of the absorption curves for peroxide solutions, for determining the activity of catalase by direct measurements of the decrease of light absorption in the region 230 to 250 mμ caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. In the case of method for crude cell extracts, oxygen evolution caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is measured with the conventional manometric technique. Peroxidase assay by spectrophotometric measurements of the disappearance of hydrogen donor or the appearance of their colored oxidation products includes the guaiacol test and the pyrogallol test.
TL;DR: The reactive superoxide radical, O2-, formerly of concern only to radiation chemists and radiobiologists, is now understood to be a normal product of the biological reduction of molecular oxygen.
Abstract: The reactive superoxide radical, O2-, formerly of concern only to radiation chemists and radiobiologists, is now understood to be a normal product of the biological reduction of molecular oxygen. An unusual family of enzymes, the superoxide dismutases, protect against the deleterious actions of this radical by catalyzing its dismutation to hydrogen peroxide plus oxygen.
01 Jan 2001-Physiological Research
TL;DR: The cytotoxic action of both these diabetogenic agents is mediated by reactive oxygen species, however, the source of their generation is different in the case of alloxan and streptozotocin.
Abstract: Alloxan and streptozotocin are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. The mechanism of their action in B cells of the pancreas has been intensively investigated and now is quite well understood. The cytotoxic action of both these diabetogenic agents is mediated by reactive oxygen species, however, the source of their generation is different in the case of alloxan and streptozotocin. Alloxan and the product of its reduction, dialuric acid, establish a redox cycle with the formation of superoxide radicals. These radicals undergo dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Thereafter highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are formed by the Fenton reaction. The action of reactive oxygen species with a simultaneous massive increase in cytosolic calcium concentration causes rapid destruction of B cells. Streptozotocin enters the B cell via a glucose transporter (GLUT2) and causes alkylation of DNA. DNA damage induces activation of poly ADP-ribosylation, a process that is more important for the diabetogenicity of streptozotocin than DNA damage itself. Poly ADP-ribosylation leads to depletion of cellular NAD+ and ATP. Enhanced ATP dephosphorylation after streptozotocin treatment supplies a substrate for xanthine oxidase resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. Consequently, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are also generated. Furthermore, streptozotocin liberates toxic amounts of nitric oxide that inhibits aconitase activity and participates in DNA damage. As a result of the streptozotocin action, B cells undergo the destruction by necrosis.
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