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Hydrogen production

About: Hydrogen production is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 30556 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 880188 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT2317
Xinchen Wang1, Kazuhiko Maeda2, Arne Thomas1, Kazuhiro Takanabe2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jan 2009-Nature Materials
Abstract: The production of hydrogen from water using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal future energy source, independent of fossil reserves. For an economical use of water and solar energy, catalysts that are sufficiently efficient, stable, inexpensive and capable of harvesting light are required. Here, we show that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor. Contrary to other conducting polymer semiconductors, carbon nitride is chemically and thermally stable and does not rely on complicated device manufacturing. The results represent an important first step towards photosynthesis in general where artificial conjugated polymer semiconductors can be used as energy transducers. more

Topics: Energy source (59%), Photocatalytic water splitting (56%), Hydrogen production (56%) more

7,884 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR068360D
George W. Huber1, Sara Iborra1, Avelino Corma1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2006-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: 1.0. Introduction 4044 2.0. Biomass Chemistry and Growth Rates 4047 2.1. Lignocellulose and Starch-Based Plants 4047 2.2. Triglyceride-Producing Plants 4049 2.3. Algae 4050 2.4. Terpenes and Rubber-Producing Plants 4052 3.0. Biomass Gasification 4052 3.1. Gasification Chemistry 4052 3.2. Gasification Reactors 4054 3.3. Supercritical Gasification 4054 3.4. Solar Gasification 4055 3.5. Gas Conditioning 4055 4.0. Syn-Gas Utilization 4056 4.1. Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056 more

Topics: Biomass (56%), Hydrogen production (53%)

6,454 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2005.01.009
Abstract: Nano-sized TiO 2 photocatalytic water-splitting technology has great potential for low-cost, environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production to support the future hydrogen economy. Presently, the solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency is too low for the technology to be economically sound. The main barriers are the rapid recombination of photo-generated electron/hole pairs as well as backward reaction and the poor activation of TiO 2 by visible light. In response to these deficiencies, many investigators have been conducting research with an emphasis on effective remediation methods. Some investigators studied the effects of addition of sacrificial reagents and carbonate salts to prohibit rapid recombination of electron/hole pairs and backward reactions. Other research focused on the enhancement of photocatalysis by modification of TiO 2 by means of metal loading, metal ion doping, dye sensitization, composite semiconductor, anion doping and metal ion-implantation. This paper aims to review the up-to-date development of the above-mentioned technologies applied to TiO 2 photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on the studies reported in the literature, metal ion-implantation and dye sensitization are very effective methods to extend the activating spectrum to the visible range. Therefore, they play an important role in the development of efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production. more

3,378 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C4CS00448E
Xiaoxin Zou1, Yu Zhang2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts. more

Topics: Water splitting (59%), Hydrogen economy (56%), Hydrogen production (54%) more

3,353 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Mar 2003-
Abstract: VOLUME 1: FUNDAMENTALS AND SURVEY OF SYSTEMS. Contributors to Volume 1. Foreword. Preface. Abbreviations and Acronyms. Part 1: Thermodynamics and kinetics of fuel cell reactions. Part 2: Mass transfer in fuel cells. Part 3: Heat transfer in fuel cells. Part 4: Fuel cell principles, systems and applications. Contents for Volumes 2, 3 and 4. Subject Index. VOLUME 2: ELECTROCATALYSIS. Contributors to Volume 2. Foreword. Preface. Abbreviations and Acronyms. Part 1: Introduction. Part 2: Theory of electrocatalysis. Part 3: Methods in electrocatalysis. Part 4: The hydrogen oxidation/evolution reaction. Part 5: The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction. Part 6: Oxidation of small organic molecules. Part 7: Other energy conversion related topics. Contents for Volumes 1, 3 and 4. Subject Index. VOLUME 3: FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS: PART 1. Contributors to Volumes 3 and 4. Foreword. Preface. Abbreviations and Acronyms. Part 1: Sustainable energy supply. Part 2: Hydrogen storage and hydrogen generation. Development prospects for hydrogen storage. Chemical hydrogen storage devices. Reforming of methanol and fuel processor development. Fuel processing from hydrocarbons to hydrogen. Well-to-wheel efficiencies. Hydrogen safety, codes and standards. Part 3: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems (PEMFC). Bipolar plate materials and flow field design. Membrane materials. Electro-catalysts. Membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA). State-of-the-art performance and durability. VOLUME 4: FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS, PART 2. Contributors to Volume 3 and 4. Foreword. Preface. Abbreviations and Acronyms. Part 3: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and systems (PEMFC) (Continued from previous volume). System design and system-specific aspects. Air-supply components. Applications based on PEM-technology. Part 4: Alkaline fuel cells and systems (AFC). Part 5: Phosphoric acid fuel cells and systems (PAFC). Part 6: Direct methanol fuel cells and systems (DMFC). Part 7: Molten carbonate fuel cells and systems (MCFC). Part 8: Solid oxide fuel cells and systems (SOFC). Materials. Stack and system design. New concepts. Part 9: Primary and secondary metal/air cells. Part 10: Portable fuel cell systems. Part 11: Current fuel cell propulsion systems. PEM fuel cell systems for cars/buses. PEM fuel cell systems for submarines. AFC fuel cell systems. Part 12: Electric utility fuel cell systems. Part 13: Future prospects of fuel cell systems. Contents for Volumes 1 and 2. Subject Index. more

Topics: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (64%), Hydrogen safety (54%), Methanol fuel (54%) more

2,890 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Ibrahim Dincer

304 papers, 11.2K citations

Greg F. Naterer

109 papers, 2.8K citations

Liejin Guo

106 papers, 5.7K citations

Nanqi Ren

74 papers, 3.3K citations

Mohammad Reza Rahimpour

64 papers, 1.5K citations

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