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Hydrogen production

About: Hydrogen production is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 30556 publications have been published within this topic receiving 880188 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor.
Abstract: The production of hydrogen from water using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal future energy source, independent of fossil reserves. For an economical use of water and solar energy, catalysts that are sufficiently efficient, stable, inexpensive and capable of harvesting light are required. Here, we show that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor. Contrary to other conducting polymer semiconductors, carbon nitride is chemically and thermally stable and does not rely on complicated device manufacturing. The results represent an important first step towards photosynthesis in general where artificial conjugated polymer semiconductors can be used as energy transducers.

9,751 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056 4.1.
Abstract: 1.0. Introduction 4044 2.0. Biomass Chemistry and Growth Rates 4047 2.1. Lignocellulose and Starch-Based Plants 4047 2.2. Triglyceride-Producing Plants 4049 2.3. Algae 4050 2.4. Terpenes and Rubber-Producing Plants 4052 3.0. Biomass Gasification 4052 3.1. Gasification Chemistry 4052 3.2. Gasification Reactors 4054 3.3. Supercritical Gasification 4054 3.4. Solar Gasification 4055 3.5. Gas Conditioning 4055 4.0. Syn-Gas Utilization 4056 4.1. Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056

7,067 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review highlights the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and summarizes some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatsalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalyst.
Abstract: Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts.

4,351 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the up-to-date development of the above-mentioned technologies applied to TiO 2 photocatalytic hydrogen production is reviewed, based on the studies reported in the literature, metal ion-implantation and dye sensitization are very effective methods to extend the activating spectrum to the visible range.
Abstract: Nano-sized TiO 2 photocatalytic water-splitting technology has great potential for low-cost, environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production to support the future hydrogen economy. Presently, the solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency is too low for the technology to be economically sound. The main barriers are the rapid recombination of photo-generated electron/hole pairs as well as backward reaction and the poor activation of TiO 2 by visible light. In response to these deficiencies, many investigators have been conducting research with an emphasis on effective remediation methods. Some investigators studied the effects of addition of sacrificial reagents and carbonate salts to prohibit rapid recombination of electron/hole pairs and backward reactions. Other research focused on the enhancement of photocatalysis by modification of TiO 2 by means of metal loading, metal ion doping, dye sensitization, composite semiconductor, anion doping and metal ion-implantation. This paper aims to review the up-to-date development of the above-mentioned technologies applied to TiO 2 photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on the studies reported in the literature, metal ion-implantation and dye sensitization are very effective methods to extend the activating spectrum to the visible range. Therefore, they play an important role in the development of efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production.

3,714 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Dec 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The findings suggest that the use of solar energy for photocatalytic water splitting might provide a viable source for ‘clean’ hydrogen fuel, once the catalytic efficiency of the semiconductor system has been improved by increasing its surface area and suitable modifications of the surface sites.
Abstract: The photocatalytic splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy is a potentially clean and renewable source for hydrogen fuel. The first photocatalysts suitable for water splitting, or for activating hydrogen production from carbohydrate compounds made by plants from water and carbon dioxide, were developed several decades ago. But these catalysts operate with ultraviolet light, which accounts for only 4% of the incoming solar energy and thus renders the overall process impractical. For this reason, considerable efforts have been invested in developing photocatalysts capable of using the less energetic but more abundant visible light, which accounts for about 43% of the incoming solar energy. However, systems that are sufficiently stable and efficient for practical use have not yet been realized. Here we show that doping of indium-tantalum-oxide with nickel yields a series of photocatalysts, In(1-x)Ni(x)TaO(4) (x = 0-0.2), which induces direct splitting of water into stoichiometric amounts of oxygen and hydrogen under visible light irradiation with a quantum yield of about 0.66%. Our findings suggest that the use of solar energy for photocatalytic water splitting might provide a viable source for 'clean' hydrogen fuel, once the catalytic efficiency of the semiconductor system has been improved by increasing its surface area and suitable modifications of the surface sites.

2,931 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20242
20232,400
20224,123
20212,431
20202,366
20192,205