About: Hydrogen sensor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2783 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 46698 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: There are an immense number of sensors reported in the literature for hydrogen detection and in this article these sensors are classified into eight different operating principles, such as measuring range, sensitivity, selectivity and response time.
Abstract: Hydrogen sensors are of increasing importance in connection with the development and expanded use of hydrogen gas as an energy carrier and as a chemical reactant. There are an immense number of sensors reported in the literature for hydrogen detection and in this work these sensors are classified into eight different operating principles. Characteristic performance parameters of these sensor types, such as measuring range, sensitivity, selectivity and response time are reviewed and the latest technology developments are reported. Testing and validation of sensor performance are described in relation to standardisation and use in potentially explosive atmospheres so as to identify the requirements on hydrogen sensors for practical applications.
17 Mar 2004-Naturwissenschaften
TL;DR: This paper reviews the various storage methods for hydrogen and highlights their potential for improvement and their physical limitations.
Abstract: Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today’s energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg·m−3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg·m−3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a system mass ratio close to one. The highest volumetric densities of hydrogen are found in metal hydrides. Many metals and alloys are capable of reversibly absorbing large amounts of hydrogen. Charging can be done using molecular hydrogen gas or hydrogen atoms from an electrolyte. The group one, two and three light metals (e.g. Li, Mg, B, Al) can combine with hydrogen to form a large variety of metal–hydrogen complexes. These are especially interesting because of their light weight and because of the number of hydrogen atoms per metal atom, which is two in many cases. Hydrogen can also be stored indirectly in reactive metals such as Li, Na, Al or Zn. These metals easily react with water to the corresponding hydroxide and liberate the hydrogen from the water. Since water is the product of the combustion of hydrogen with either oxygen or air, it can be recycled in a closed loop and react with the metal. Finally, the metal hydroxides can be thermally reduced to metals in a solar furnace. This paper reviews the various storage methods for hydrogen and highlights their potential for improvement and their physical limitations.
TL;DR: In this article, a room-temperature hydrogen sensor comprised of a TiO2-nanotube array able to recover substantially from sensor poisoning through ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation of the contaminating agent; in this case, various grades of motor oil.
Abstract: Described is a room-temperature hydrogen sensor comprised of a TiO2-nanotube array able to recover substantially from sensor poisoning through ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation of the contaminating agent; in this case, various grades of motor oil. The TiO2 nanotubes comprising the sensor are a mixture of both anatase and rutile phases, having nominal dimensions of 22-nm inner diameter, 13.5-nm wall thickness, and 400-nm length, coated with a 10-nm-thick noncontinuous palladium layer. At 24 °C, in response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen, the sensors show a fully reversible change in electrical resistance of approximately 175,000%. Cyclic voltammograms using a 1 N KOH electrolyte under 170 mW/cm2 UV illumination show, for both a clean and an oil-contaminated sensor, anodic current densities of approximately 28 mA/cm2 at 2.5 V. The open circuit oxidation potential shows a shift from 0.5 V to −0.97 V upon UV illumination.
TL;DR: In this article, a self-assembly SnO2 nanowire gas sensor has been fabricated on Cd−Au comb-shaped interdigitating electrodes using thermal evaporation of the mixed powders of SnO 2 and active carbon.
Abstract: SnO2 nanowire gas sensors have been fabricated on Cd−Au comb-shaped interdigitating electrodes using thermal evaporation of the mixed powders of SnO2 and active carbon. The self-assembly grown sensors have excellent performance in sensor response to hydrogen concentration in the range of 10 to 1000 ppm. This high response is attributed to the large portion of undercoordinated atoms on the surface of the SnO2 nanowires. The influence of the Debye length of the nanowires and the gap between electrodes in the gas sensor response is examined and discussed.
31 Mar 2004-Solid State Ionics
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of possible hydrogen devices using a proton-conducting ceramic and the prospect of hydrogen technology utilizing these devices is described and the working principles of these devices and status of the development are reviewed touching the future prospect of applications.
Abstract: This paper reviews possible hydrogen devices using a proton-conducting ceramic and describes the prospect of hydrogen technology utilizing these devices. Solid-state protonic devices can be classified into two categories: the devices utilizing electromotive force (EMF) and the ones utilizing preferential transport of protons. Galvanic cell type hydrogen sensors and fuel cells belong to the former, and hydrogen pump, steam electrolyzer and membrane reactors to the latter. Various kinds of modifications can be derived, in principle, from these devices. In this paper, the working principles of these devices and status of the development are reviewed touching the future prospect of applications. In addition, the recent studies and the possibilities of protonic devices for nuclear fusion process in the future are introduced.
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