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Hydroxylamine

About: Hydroxylamine is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6481 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 115772 citation(s). The topic is also known as: nitrinous acid & aminol.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Shlomo. Hestrin1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The present method, which is designed for use with short chain 0-acyl derivatives, is based on the finding that hydroxylamine at an alkaline pH in water rapidly converts acetylcholine stoichiometrically to hydroxamic acid throughout a wide range of ester concentration.

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Abstract: In spite of its physiological importance acetylcholine has been determinable chemically only after isolation by time-consuming procedures. Of necessity workers in this field have resorted to pharmacological bioassays whose specificity seems open to doubt. The finding that choline is readily acetylated by the action of a coenzyme-linked enzyme system in which adenosine triphosphate serves as an energy source (1) lends added interest to the development of adequate analytical procedures for acetylcholine. This communication concerns certain properties of the interaction of scetylcholine with hydroxylamine, and the means of using this reaction, RCOOR’ + HzNOH ---f RCONHOH + R’OH, for the quantitative determination of acetylcholine. Feigl, Anger, and Frehden (2) have described the use of hydroxylamine as a spot test reagent (cf. also (3)). Lipmann and Tuttle (4) have based a specific quantitative method for the acyl phosphates on their ability to react with hydroxylamine in water at pH 6. Hill (5, 6) has used the reaction of est,ers with hydroxylamine at alkaline pH in anhydrous solvents to determine long chain fatty acid esters (cf. also (7)). The present method, which is designed for use with short chain 0-acyl derivatives, is based on the finding that hydroxylamine at an alkaline pH in water rapidly converts acetylcholine stoichiometrically to hydroxamic acid throughout a wide range of ester concentration. The specificity of the reaction as between esters and products of t.heir hydrolysis and its rapidity and technical simplicity have afforded an analytical method which is adaptable to widely different conditions. Hydroxylamine has been employed a,s a trapping reagent for acyl anhydrides in mixed enzyme systems by Lipmann and Tuttle (8) and others (9-11). Chantrenne (12) has shown that hydroxylamine at pH 7.1 also traps carboxylic acid esters. Experiments reported below evaluate the

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1,803 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yasuhisa Kono1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Hydrogen peroxide stimulated the autoxidation and superoxide dismutase inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation, results which suggest the participation of hydrogenperoxide in autoxidated and in the generation of superoxide radical.

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Abstract: Accompanying the autoxidation of hydroxylamine at pH 10.2, nitroblue tetrazolium was reduced and nitrite was produced in the presence of EDTA. The rate of autoxidation was negligible below pH 8.0, but sharply increased with increasing pH. The reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, indicating the participation of superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated the autoxidation and superoxide dismutase inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation, results which suggest the participation of hydrogen peroxide in autoxidation and in the generation of superoxide radical. An assay for superoxide dismutase using autoxidation of hydroxylamine is described.

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1,289 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hiroshi Kasai1, Susumu Nishimura1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The C-8 position of deoxyguanosine (dGuo) was hydroxylated by ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen (O2) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer in high yield with remarkably enhanced addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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Abstract: The C-8 position of deoxyguanosine (dGuo) was hydroxylated by ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen (O2) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 37 degrees C. Addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) remarkably enhanced this hydroxylation. The Udenfriend system [ascorbic acid, FeII, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and O2] was also effective for hydroxylation of dGuo in high yield. Guanine residues in DNA were also hydroxylated by ascorbic acid. Other reducing agents, such as hydroxylamine, hydrazine, dihydroxymaleic acid, sodium bisulfite and acetol, were also effective for the hydroxylation reaction, as were metal-EDTA complexes (FeII-, SnII-, TiIII-, CuI-EDTA). An OH radical seemed to be involved in this hydroxylation reaction in most of the above hydroxylating systems, but another reaction mechanism may also be involved, particularly when dGuo is hydroxylated by ascorbic acid alone or ascorbic acid plus H2O2. The possible biological significance of the hydroxylation of guanine residues in DNA in relation to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is discussed.

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907 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data implicate Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 as a potential therapeutic agent in conditions of altered production of nitric oxide in in vitro acellular systems.

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Abstract: Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 was found to be a scavenger of nitric oxide in in vitro acellular systems, under physiological conditions. EGb 761 competed with oxyhemoglobin for reaction with nitric oxide generated during the interaction of hydroxylamine with Complex I of catalase. An EGb 761 dose-dependent decrease in the amount of nitrite formed in the reaction of oxygen with nitric oxide produced from solution of 5 mM sodium nitroprusside was also observed. These data implicate it as a potential therapeutic agent in conditions of altered production of nitric oxide.

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873 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The number of reports on unaccounted high nitrogen losses in wastewater treatment is gradually increasing, indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation may be more widespread than previously assumed.

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Abstract: From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. 'Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH4+ min-1 (mg protein)-1 using nitrogen dioxide as electron acceptor. This reaction, which may involve NO as an intermediate, is thought to generate energy sufficient for survival under anoxic conditions, but not for growth. A novel obligately anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process was recently discovered in a denitrifying pilot plant reactor. From this system, a highly enriched microbial community with one dominating peculiar autotrophic organism was obtained. With nitrite as electron acceptor a maximum specific oxidation rate of 55 nmol NH4+ min-1 (mg protein)-1 was determined. Although this reaction is 25-fold faster than in Nitrosomonas, it allowed growth at a rate of only 0.003 h-1 (doubling time 11 days). 15N labeling studies showed that hydroxylamine and hydrazine were important intermediates in this new process. A novel type of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase containing an unusual P468 cytochrome has been purified from the Anammox culture. Microsensor studies have shown that at the oxic/anoxic interface of many ecosystems nitrite and ammonia occur in the absence of oxygen. In addition, the number of reports on unaccounted high nitrogen losses in wastewater treatment is gradually increasing, indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation may be more widespread than previously assumed. The recently developed nitrification systems in which oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is prevented form an ideal partner for the Anammox process. The combination of these partial nitrification and Anammox processes remains a challenge for future application in the removal of ammonium from wastewater with high ammonium concentrations.

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778 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
202172
202079
201987
201895
2017121

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Alan B. Hooper

11 papers, 605 citations

Helio G. Bonacorso

9 papers, 152 citations

Mike S. M. Jetten

8 papers, 1.4K citations

Juan A. Squella

8 papers, 76 citations

Daniel M. Brown

8 papers, 297 citations