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About: Hyperpolarizability is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5186 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 117620 citation(s).

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Abstract: An accurate description of the electrical properties of atoms and molecules is critical for quantitative predictions of the nonlinear properties of molecules and of long‐range atomic and molecular interactions between both neutral and charged species. We report a systematic study of the basis sets required to obtain accurate correlated values for the static dipole (α1), quadrupole (α2), and octopole (α3) polarizabilities and the hyperpolarizability (γ) of the rare gas atoms He, Ne, and Ar. Several methods of correlation treatment were examined, including various orders of Moller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2, MP3, MP4), coupled‐cluster theory with and without perturbative treatment of triple excitations [CCSD, CCSD(T)], and singles and doubles configuration interaction (CISD). All of the basis sets considered here were constructed by adding even‐tempered sets of diffuse functions to the correlation consistent basis sets of Dunning and co‐workers. With multiply‐augmented sets we find that the electrical properties of the rare gas atoms converge smoothly to values that are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and/or previously computed results. As a further test of the basis sets presented here, the dipole polarizabilities of the F− and Cl− anions and of the HCl and N2 molecules are also reported.

2,244 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The term nonlinear optics (NLO) was coined to describe the nonlinear relationship between dielectric polarization P and electric field E in optical media to develop materials with the ability to alter the frequency of light, to amplify light signal, and to modulate light intensity or phase factors.
Abstract: The term nonlinear optics (NLO) was coined to describe the nonlinear relationship between dielectric polarization P and electric field E in optical media. NLO is a cornerstone of the emerging field of photonics, in which photons instead of electrons are used for signal transmission and processing. The vision of photonic signal transmission, processing, and storage has attracted a great deal of attention from both the engineering and the scientific communities because of its great impact in many of the existing and future information technologies. The first step toward realization of these revolutionary technologies is to develop tools to manipulate photons. For example, it is desirable to develop materials with the ability to alter the frequency of light, to amplify light signal, and to modulate light intensity or phase factors. NLO phenomena can be the key to achieving these important functions. One of the most common NLO behaviors is second-harmonic generation (SHG), in which a NLO material mediates the “adding-up” of two photons to form a new one with twice the frequency. The SHGphenomenonwas first demonstrated by Franken et al. in 1961. In their pioneering work, a laser beam with a wavelength of 694.2 nm was irradiated through a quartz crystal and an output ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 347.1 nm (double frequency) was detected. After this discovery, numerous nonlinear optical phenomena have been studied and a number of NLO-active materials have been developed. Second-harmonic generation can be quantitatively described by the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ, a third-rank tensor with 27 components. The tensor elements are related to each other tomeet the requirements of both inherent and structural symmetries, which greatly reduces the number of independent components of the susceptibility tensor. Only crystals in noncentrosymmetric crystal classes can have nonvanishing χ. Moreover, for material crystallizing in the noncentrosymmetric 422, 622, and 432 crystal classes, the second-order NLO response might also vanish due to structural symmetry as well as Kleinman’s symmetry. Many inorganic compounds crystallize in noncentrosymmetric space groups and have been found to be SHG active. Some important examples are potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP = KH2PO4), lithium niobate (LiNbO3), and barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNb5O15). 7 New inorganic compounds have been explored for NLO applications including but not limited to metal borates 12 and metal oxides. Recent structural studies on the inorganic systems have led to a better understanding of crystal growth/packing, paving the way for potentially manipulating their crystallization tendency to form noncentrosymmetric structures. Since the 1970s molecular NLO materials, including organic, organometallic, and inorganic complexes, have been of increasing interest to synthetic chemists. 19 The existing library of organic compounds was first screened, and the urea crystal has become a SHG standard because of its high SHG efficiency and usual availability. In a microscopic view, the second-order NLO susceptibility χ is related to the first hyperpolarizability β of a molecule. According to the classical two-level model, β is enhanced by a large transition moment and a large dipole moment difference between the ground and the charge transfer excited state. A donor acceptor type of molecule often possesses both a large transition moment and a large excited state dipole moment. As a result, most of the organic SHG chromophors belong to this category. However, most of the molecules with large β values also possess a large dipole moment, which induces formation of centrosymmetric assemblies of molecules due to dipole dipole interactions. One of the methods to avoid the centrosymmetric alignment of molecular dipoles is to trap them inside the channels of asymmetric porous host structures. 28 Other methods include formation of poled polymers in which the required asymmetry is imposed by the external electric field 35 and the Langmuir Blodgett (LB)

834 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Apr 1991-Science
TL;DR: A two-state, four-orbital, independent electron analysis of the first optical molecular hyperpolarizability, β, leads to the prediction that |β| maximizes at a combination of donor and acceptor strengths for a given conjugated bridge.
Abstract: A two-state, four-orbital, independent electron analysis of the first optical molecular hyperpolarizability, β, leads to the prediction that |β| maximizes at a combination of donor and acceptor strengths for a given conjugated bridge. Molecular design strategies that focus on the energetic manipulations of the bridge states are proposed for the optimization of β. The limitations of molecular classes based on common bridge structures are highlighted and more promising candidates are described. Experimental results supporting the validity of this approach are presented.

703 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: : A finite field method for the calculation of polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities is developed based on both an energy expansion and a dipole moment expansion. This procedure is implemented in the MOPAC semiempirical program. Values and components of the dipole moment (mu), polarizability (alpha), first hyperpolarizability (beta), and second hyperpolarizability (gamma) are calculated as an extension of the usual MOPAC run. Applications to benzene and substituted benzenes are shown as test cases utilizing both MNDO and AM1 Hamiltonians.

686 citations

11 Mar 1991
Abstract: Linear and Nonlinear Polarizability: a Primer Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Processes in Molecules and Solids Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecular and Polymeric Materials Nonlinear Optical Properties of Molecules and Materials Electronic Hyperpolarizability and Chemical Structure Electrooptic Polymer Waveguide Devices: Status and Applications Waveguiding and Waveguide Applications of Nonlinear Organic Materials Nonlinear Optical Materials: The Great and Near Great Donor- and Acceptor-Substituted Organic and Organometallic Compounds: Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties Use of a Sulfonyl Group in Materials for Nonlinear Optical Materials: A Bifunctional Electron Acceptor Organic and Organometallic Compounds: Second-Order Molecular and Macroscopic Optical Nonlinearities Chemistry of Anomalous-Dispersion Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation Applications of Organic Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Chromophore-Polymer Assemblies for Nonlinear Optical Materials: Routes to New Thin-Film Frequency-Doubling Materials Novel Covalently Functionalized Amorphous *y^2 Nonlinear Optical Polymer: Synthesis and Characterization Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Polyphosphazanes Molecular Design for Enhanced Electric Field Orientation of Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores Nonlinear Optical Chromophores in Photocrosslinked Matrices: Synthesis, Poling, and Second-Harmonic Generation Thermal Effects on Dopant Orientation in Poled, Doped Polymers: Use of Second Harmonic Generation Organic Polymers as Guided Wave Materials Observing High Second Harmonic Generation and Control of Molecular Alignment in One Dimension: Cyclobutenediones as a Promising New Acceptor for Nonlinear Optical Materials Strategy and Tactics in the Search for New Harmonic-Generating Crystals Development of New Nonlinear Optical Crystals in the Borate Series What is Materials Chemistry? Defect Properties and the Photorefractive Effect in Barium Titanate Defect Chemistry of Nonlinear Optical Oxide Crystals From Molecular to Supramolecular Nonlinear Optical Properties Control of Symmetry and Asymmetry in Hydrogen-Bonded Nitroaniline Materials Molecular Orbital Modeling of Monomeric Aggregates in Materials with Potentially Nonlinear Optical Properties Strategies for Design of Solids with Polar Arrangement Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals Designed For Electronic Nonlinear Optical Applications Model Polymers with Distyrylbenzene Segments for Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties Composites: Novel Materials for Second Harmonic Generation Clathrasils: New Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications Inorganic Sol-Gel Glasses as Matrices for Nonlinear Optical Materials Intrazeolite Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Quantum Supralattices: New Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications Small Semiconductor Particles: Preparation and Characterization Synthetic Approaches to Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Ferrocene Systems Transition Metal Acetylides for Nonlinear Optical Properties Third-Order Near-Resonance Nonlinearities in Dithiolenes and Rare Earth Metallocenes Nonlinear Optical Properties of Substituted Phthalocyanines Nonlinear Optical Properties of Substituted Polysilanes and Polygermanes Design of New Nonlinear Optic-Active Polymers: Use of Delocalized Polaronic or Bipolaronic Charge States New Polymeric Materials with Cubic Optical Nonlinearities: From Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Polymers and an Unusual Molecular Crystal with Nonlinear Optical Properties Quadratic Electrooptic Effect in Small Molecules Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials

656 citations

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