About: Hysteresis is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16895 publications have been published within this topic receiving 316343 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the magnetization of the Mn12 cluster is highly anisotropic and the magnetisation relaxation time becomes very long below a temperature of 4 K, giving rise to pronounced hysteresis.
Abstract: MAGNETIC materials of mesoscopic dimensions (a few to many thousands of atoms) may exhibit novel and useful properties such as giant magnetostriction, magnetoresistivity and magnetocaloric effects1–4. Such materials also allow one to study the transition from molecular to bulk-like magnetic behaviour. One approach for preparing mesoscopic magnetic materials is to fragment bulk ferromagnets; a more controllable method is to take a 'bottom-up' approach, using chemistry to grow well defined clusters of metal ions5,6. Lis7 has described a twelve-ion manganese cluster in which eight of the Mn ions are in the +3 oxidation state (spin S=2) and four are in the +4 state (S=3/2). These ions are magnetically coupled to give an S=10 ground state8, giving rise to unusual magnetic relaxation properties8,9. Here we report that the magnetization of the Mn12 cluster is highly anisotropic and that the magnetization relaxation time becomes very long below a temperature of 4 K, giving rise to pronounced hysteresis. This behaviour is not, however, strictly analogous to that of a bulk ferromagnet, in which magnetization hysteresis results from the motion of domain walls. In principle, a bistable magnetic unit of this sort could act as a data storage device.
TL;DR: The trap states on the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite materials are demonstrated to be the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and that the fullerene layers deposited onperovskites can effectively passivate these charge trap states and eliminate the notorious photocurrent Hysteresi.
Abstract: The large photocurrent hysteresis observed in many organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells has become a major hindrance impairing the ultimate performance and stability of these devices, while its origin was unknown. Here we demonstrate the trap states on the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite materials to be the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and that the fullerene layers deposited on perovskites can effectively passivate these charge trap states and eliminate the notorious photocurrent hysteresis. Fullerenes deposited on the top of the perovskites reduce the trap density by two orders of magnitude and double the power conversion efficiency of CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) solar cells. The elucidation of the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and its elimination by trap passivation in perovskite solar cells provides important directions for future enhancements to device efficiency.
TL;DR: In this paper, a mathematical model of the hysteresis mechanisms in ferromagnets is presented based on existing ideas of domain wall motion including both bending and translation, which gives rise to a frictional force opposing the movement of domain walls.
Abstract: A mathematical model of the hysteresis mechanisms in ferromagnets is presented. This is based on existing ideas of domain wall motion including both bending and translation. The anhysteretic magnetization curve is derived using a mean field approach in which the magnetization of any domain is coupled to the magnetic field H and the bulk magnetization M . The anhysteretic emerges as the magnetization which would be achieved in the absence of domain wall pinning. Hysteresis is then included by considering the effects of pinning of magnetic domain walls on defect sites. This gives rise to a frictional force opposing the movement of domain walls. The impedance to motion is expressed via a single parameter k , leading to a simple model equation of state. This exhibits all of the main features of hysteresis such as the initial magnetization curve, saturation of magnetization, coercivity, remanence, and hysteresis loss.
20 Jun 1996
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a mathematical model for phase transitions in Eutectoid carbon steels, based on the Caginalp model and the Penrose-Fife model.
Abstract: 1. Some Mathematical Tools.- 1.1 Measure and Integration.- 1.2 Function Spaces.- 1.3 Nonlinear Equations.- 1.4 Ordinary Differential Equations.- 2. Hysteresis Operators.- 2.1 Basic Examples.- 2.2 General Hysteresis Operators.- 2.3 The Play Operator.- 2.4 Hysteresis Operators of Preisach Type.- 2.5 Hysteresis Potentials and Energy Dissipation.- 2.6 Hysteresis Counting and Damage.- 2.7 Characterization of Preisach Type Operators.- 2.8 Hysteresis Loops in the Prandtl Model.- 2.9 Hysteresis Loops in the Preisach Model.- 2.10 Composition of Preisach Type Operators.- 2.11 Inverse and Implicit Hysteresis Operators.- 2.12 Hysteresis Count and Damage, Part II.- 3. Hysteresis and Differential Equations.- 3.1 Hysteresis in Ordinary Differential Equations.- 3.2 Auxiliary Imbedding Results.- 3.3 The Heat Equation with Hysteresis.- 3.4 A Convexity Inequality.- 3.5 The Wave Equation with Hysteresis.- 4. Phase Transitions and Hysteresis.- 4.1 Thermodynamic Notions and Relations.- 4.2 Phase Transitions and Order Parameters.- 4.3 Landau and Devonshire Free Energies.- 4.4 Ginzburg Theory and Phase Field Models.- 5. Hysteresis Effects in Shape Memory Alloys.- 5.1 Phenomenology and Falk's Model.- 5.2 Well-Posedness for Falk's Model.- 5.3 Numerical Approximation.- 5.4 Complementary Remarks.- 6. Phase Field Models With Non-Conserving Kinetics.- 6.1 Auxiliary Results from Linear Elliptic and Parabolic Theory.- 6.2 Well-Posedness of the Caginalp Model.- 6.3 Well-Posedness of the Penrose-Fife Model.- 6.4 Complementary Remarks.- 7. Phase Field Models With Conserved Order Parameters.- 7.1 Well-Posedness of the Caginalp Model.- 7.2 Well-Posedness of the Penrose-Fife Model.- 8. Phase Transitions in Eutectoid Carbon Steels.- 8.1 Phenomenology of the Phase Transitions.- 8.2 The Mathematical Model.- 8.3 Well-Posedness of the Model.- 8.4 The Jominy Test: A Numerical Study.
TL;DR: In this paper, a model of the magnetization within these particles consisting of ferrimagnetically aligned core spins and a spin-glass-like surface layer is proposed, and the qualitative features of this model are reproduced by a numerical calculation of the spin distribution.
Abstract: Nickel ferrite nanoparticles exhibit anomalous magnetic properties at low temperatures: low magnetization with a large differential susceptibility at high fields, hysteresis loops which are open up to 160 kOe, time-dependent magnetization in 70 kOe applied field, and shifted hysteresis loops after field cooling. We propose a model of the magnetization within these particles consisting of ferrimagnetically aligned core spins and a spin-glass-like surface layer. We find that qualitative features of this model are reproduced by a numerical calculation of the spin distribution. Implications of this model for possible macroscopic quantum tunneling in these materials are discussed.
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