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Igneous rock

About: Igneous rock is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13302 publications have been published within this topic receiving 545143 citations. The topic is also known as: magmatic rock & igneous rocks.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of zircon in crustal evolution studies is underscored by its predominant use in U-Th-Pb geochronology and investigations of the temporal evolution of both the crust and lithospheric mantle as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Zircon is the main mineral in the majority of igneous and metamorphic rocks with Zr as an essential structural constituent. It is a host for significant fractions of the whole-rock abundance of U, Th, Hf, and the REE (Sawka 1988, Bea 1996, O’Hara et al. 2001). These elements are important geochemically as process indicators or parent isotopes for age determination. The importance of zircon in crustal evolution studies is underscored by its predominant use in U-Th-Pb geochronology and investigations of the temporal evolution of both the crust and lithospheric mantle. In the past decade an increasing interest in the composition of zircon, trace-elements in particular, has been motivated by the effort to better constrain in situ microprobe-acquired isotopic ages. Electron-beam compositional imaging and isotope-ratio measurement by in situ beam techniques—and the micrometer-scale spatial resolution that is possible—has revealed in many cases that single zircon crystals contain a record of multiple geologic events. Such events can either be zircon-consuming, alteration, or zircon-forming and may be separated in time by millions or billions of years. In many cases, calculated zircon isotopic ages do not coincide with ages of geologic events determined from other minerals or from whole-rock analysis. To interpret the geologic validity and significance of multiple ages, and ages unsupported by independent analysis of other isotopic systems, has been the impetus for most past investigations of zircon composition. Some recent compositional investigations of zircon have not been directly related to geochronology, but to the ability of zircon to influence or record petrogenetic processes in igneous and metamorphic systems. Sedimentary rocks may also contain a significant fraction of zircon. Although authigenic zircon has been reported (Saxena 1966, Baruah et al. 1995, Hower et al. 1999), it appears to be very rare and may in fact be related to …

3,777 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1990-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, the trace-element geochemical properties of the adakites (termed "adakites") of modern island and continental arcs are shown to be consistent with a derivation by partial melting of the subducted slab, and in particular that subducting lithosphere younger than 25 Myr seems to be required for slab melting to occur.
Abstract: MOST volcanic rocks in modern island and continental arcs are probably derived from melting of the mantle wedge, induced by hydrous fluids released during dehydration reactions in the subducted lithosphere1. Arc tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basaltic magmas are produced by partial melting of the mantle, and then evolve by crystal fractionation (with or without assimilation and magma mixing) to more silicic magmas2—basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite suites. Although most arc magmas are generated by these petrogenetic processes, rocks with the geochemical characteristics of melts derived directly from the subducted lithosphere are present in some modern arcs where relatively young and hot lithosphere is being subducted. These andesites, dacites and sodic rhyolites (dacites seem to be the most common products) or their intrusive equivalents (tonalites and trondhjemites) are usually not associated with parental basaltic magmas3. Here we show that the trace-element geochemistry of these magmas (termed 'adakites') is consistent with a derivation by partial melting of the subducted slab, and in particular that subducting lithosphere younger than 25 Myr seems to be required for slab melting to occur.

3,524 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the first finding of continental crust-derived Precambrian zircons in garnet/spinel pyroxenite veins within mantle xenoliths carried by the Neogene Hannuoba basalt in the central zone of the North China Craton (NCC).
Abstract: We present the first finding of continental crust-derived Precambrian zircons in garnet/spinel pyroxenite veins within mantle xenoliths carried by the Neogene Hannuoba basalt in the central zone of the North China Craton (NCC). Petrological and geochemical features indicate that these mantle-derived composite xenoliths were formed by silicic melt^lherzolite interaction. The Precambrian zircon ages can be classified into three age groups of 2·4^2·5 Ga, 1·6^2·2 Ga and 0·6^1·2 Ga, coinciding with major geological events in the NCC. These Precambrian zircons fall in the field of continental granitoid rocks in plots of U/Yb vs Hf and Y. Their igneous-type REE patterns and metamorphic zircon type CL images indicate that they were not crystallized during melt^peridotite interaction and subsequent high-pressure metamorphism.The 2·5 Ga zircons have positive eHf(t) values (2·9^10·6), whereas the younger Precambrian zircons are dominated by negative eHf(t) values, indicating an ancient continental crustal origin.These observations suggest that the Precambrian zircons were xenocrysts that survived melting of recycled continental crustal rocks and were then injected with silicate melt into the host peridotite. In addition to the Precambrian zircons, igneous zircons of 315 3 Ma (2 ), 80^170 Ma and 48^64 Ma were separated from the garnet/spinel pyroxenite veins; these provide evidence for lower continental crust and oceanic crust recycling-induced multi-episodic melt^peridotite interactions in the central zone of the NCC. The combination of the positive eHf(t) values (2·91^24·6) of the 315 Ma zircons with the rare occurrence of 302^324 Ma subduction-related diorite^granite plutons in the northern margin of the NCC implies that the 315 Ma igneous zircons might record melt^peridotite interactions in the lithospheric mantle induced by Palaeo-Asian oceanic crust subduction. Igneous zircons of age 80^170 Ma generally coexist with the Precambrian metamorphic zircons and have lower Ce/Yb and Th/U ratios, higher U/Yb ratios and greater negative Eu anomalies.The eHf(t) values of these zircons vary greatly from ^47·6 to 24·6.The 170^110 Ma zircons are generally characterized by negative eHf(t) values, whereas the 110^100 Ma zircons have positive eHf(t) values.These observations suggest that melt^peridotite interactions at 80^170 Ma were induced by partial melting of recycled continental crust. The 48^64 Ma igneous zircons are characterized by negligible Ce anomalies, unusually high REE, U and Th contents, and positive eHf(t) values.These features imply that the melt^peridotite interactions at 48^64 Ma could be associated with a depleted mantle-derived carbonate melt or fluid.

2,753 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new comprehensive chemical classification of the plutonic rocks is introduced, which enables geoscientists to focus on the magma, the most important concept in igneous petrology.

2,657 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023308
2022733
2021401
2020381
2019349
2018343