About: Immobilized enzyme is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15282 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 401860 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In all cases, enzyme engineering via immobilization techniques is perfectly compatible with other chemical or biological approaches to improve enzyme functions and the final success depend on the availability of a wide battery of immobilization protocols.
Abstract: In spite of their excellent catalytic properties, enzyme properties have to be usually improved before their implementation at industrial scale (where many cycles of high yield processes are desired). Generally, soluble enzymes have to be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors and, in addition to that, some other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, selectivity towards non-natural substrates. Some strategies to improve these enzyme properties during the performance of tailor-made enzyme immobilization protocols are here reviewed. In this way, immobilized enzymes may also exhibit much better functional properties than the corresponding soluble enzymes by very simple immobilization protocols. For example, multipoint and multisubunit covalent immobilization improve the stability of monomeric or multimeric enzymes. Moreover, enantioselectivity of different enzymes (e.g., lipases) may be also dramatically improved (from E = 1 to >100) by performing different immobilization protocols of the same enzyme. In all cases, enzyme engineering via immobilization techniques is perfectly compatible with other chemical or biological approaches to improve enzyme functions and the final success depend on the availability of a wide battery of immobilization protocols.
TL;DR: Different methods for the immobilization of enzymes are critically reviewed, with emphasis on relatively recent developments, such as the use of novel supports, e.g., mesoporous silicas, hydrogels, and smart polymers, novel entrapment methods and cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs).
Abstract: Immobilization is often the key to optimizing the operational performance of an enzyme in industrial processes, particularly for use in non-aqueous media. Different methods for the immobilization of enzymes are critically reviewed. The methods are divided into three main categories, viz. (i) binding to a prefabricated support (carrier), (ii) entrapment in organic or inorganic polymer matrices, and (iii) cross-linking of enzyme molecules. Emphasis is placed on relatively recent developments, such as the use of novel supports, e.g., mesoporous silicas, hydrogels, and smart polymers, novel entrapment methods and cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs).
08 Jul 2013-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: In this tutorial review, some of the main reasons that may produce an improvement in enzyme activity, specificity or selectivity, either real or apparent, due to immobilization are listed.
Abstract: Immobilization of enzymes may produce alterations in their observed activity, specificity or selectivity. Although in many cases an impoverishment of the enzyme properties is observed upon immobilization (caused by the distortion of the enzyme due to the interaction with the support) in some instances such properties may be enhanced by this immobilization. These alterations in enzyme properties are sometimes associated with changes in the enzyme structure. Occasionally, these variations will be positive. For example, they may be related to the stabilization of a hyperactivated form of the enzyme, like in the case of lipases immobilized on hydrophobic supports via interfacial activation. In some other instances, these improvements will be just a consequence of random modifications in the enzyme properties that in some reactions will be positive while in others may be negative. For this reason, the preparation of a library of biocatalysts as broad as possible may be a key turning point to find an immobilized biocatalyst with improved properties when compared to the free enzyme. Immobilized enzymes will be dispersed on the support surface and aggregation will no longer be possible, while the free enzyme may suffer aggregation, which greatly decreases enzyme activity. Moreover, enzyme rigidification may lead to preservation of the enzyme properties under drastic conditions in which the enzyme tends to become distorted thus decreasing its activity. Furthermore, immobilization of enzymes on a support, mainly on a porous support, may in many cases also have a positive impact on the observed enzyme behavior, not really related to structural changes. For example, the promotion of diffusional problems (e.g., pH gradients, substrate or product gradients), partition (towards or away from the enzyme environment, for substrate or products), or the blocking of some areas (e.g., reducing inhibitions) may greatly improve enzyme performance. Thus, in this tutorial review, we will try to list and explain some of the main reasons that may produce an improvement in enzyme activity, specificity or selectivity, either real or apparent, due to immobilization.
TL;DR: A review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade, is presented in this paper, where one hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.
Abstract: As functional materials, chitin and chitosan offer a unique set of characteristics: biocompatibility, biodegradability to harmless products, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, heavy metal ions chelation, gel forming properties and hydrophilicity, and remarkable affinity to proteins. Owing to these characteristics, chitin- and chitosan-based materials, as yet underutilized, are predicted to be widely exploited in the near future especially in environmentally benign applications in systems working in biological environments, among others as enzyme immobilization supports. This paper is a review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade. One hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.
TL;DR: The advantages and disadvantages of the different existing immobilization strategies to solve the different aforementioned enzyme limitations are given and some advice to select the optimal strategy for each particular enzyme and process is given.
Abstract: Enzyme biocatalysis plays a very relevant role in the development of many chemical industries, e.g., energy, food or fine chemistry. To achieve this goal, enzyme immobilization is a usual pre-requisite as a solution to get reusable biocatalysts and thus decrease the price of this relatively expensive compound. However, a proper immobilization technique may permit far more than to get a reusable enzyme; it may be used to improve enzyme performance by improving some enzyme limitations: enzyme purity, stability (including the possibility of enzyme reactivation), activity, specificity, selectivity, or inhibitions. Among the diverse immobilization techniques, the use of pre-existing supports to immobilize enzymes (via covalent or physical coupling) and the immobilization without supports [enzyme crosslinked aggregates (CLEAs) or crystals (CLECs)] are the most used or promising ones. This paper intends to give the advantages and disadvantages of the different existing immobilization strategies to solve the different aforementioned enzyme limitations. Moreover, the use of nanoparticles as immobilization supports is achieving an increasing importance, as the nanoparticles versatility increases and becomes more accessible to the researchers. We will also discuss here some of the advantages and drawbacks of these non porous supports compared to conventional porous supports. Although there are no universal optimal solutions for all cases, we will try to give some advice to select the optimal strategy for each particular enzyme and process, considering the enzyme properties, nature of the process and of the substrate. In some occasions the selection will be compulsory, for example due to the nature of the substrate. In other cases the optimal biocatalyst may depend on the company requirements (e.g., volumetric activity, enzyme stability, etc).
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