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Immune checkpoint

About: Immune checkpoint is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7807 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 243553 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Drew M. Pardoll1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Preliminary clinical findings with blockers of additional immune-checkpoint proteins, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), indicate broad and diverse opportunities to enhance antitumour immunity with the potential to produce durable clinical responses.

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Abstract: Immune checkpoints refer to the plethora of inhibitory pathways that are crucial to maintaining self-tolerance. Tumour cells induce immune checkpoints to evade immunosurveillance. This Review discusses the progress in targeting immune checkpoints, the considerations for combinatorial therapy and the potential for additional immune-checkpoint targets.

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8,577 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dung T. Le, Jennifer N. Uram1, Hao Wang2, Bjarne Bartlett3  +33 moreInstitutions (6)
TL;DR: This study showed that mismatch-repair status predicted clinical benefit of immune checkpoint blockade with pembrolizumab, and high somatic mutation loads were associated with prolonged progression-free survival.

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Abstract: BackgroundSomatic mutations have the potential to encode “non-self” immunogenic antigens. We hypothesized that tumors with a large number of somatic mutations due to mismatch-repair defects may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. MethodsWe conducted a phase 2 study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab, an anti–programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in 41 patients with progressive metastatic carcinoma with or without mismatch-repair deficiency. Pembrolizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 14 days in patients with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancers, patients with mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancers, and patients with mismatch repair–deficient cancers that were not colorectal. The coprimary end points were the immune-related objective response rate and the 20-week immune-related progression-free survival rate. ResultsThe immune-related objective response rate and immune-related progression-free survival ...

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5,399 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dung T. Le1, Dung T. Le2, Jennifer N. Durham2, Jennifer N. Durham1  +54 moreInstitutions (10)
28 Jul 2017-Science
TL;DR: Evaluating the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced mismatch repair–deficient cancers across 12 different tumor types showed that colorectal cancers with mismatch repair deficiency were sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade with antibodies to programmed death receptor–1 (PD-1).

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Abstract: The genomes of cancers deficient in mismatch repair contain exceptionally high numbers of somatic mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we previously showed that colorectal cancers with mismatch repair deficiency were sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade with antibodies to programmed death receptor–1 (PD-1). We have now expanded this study to evaluate the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced mismatch repair–deficient cancers across 12 different tumor types. Objective radiographic responses were observed in 53% of patients, and complete responses were achieved in 21% of patients. Responses were durable, with median progression-free survival and overall survival still not reached. Functional analysis in a responding patient demonstrated rapid in vivo expansion of neoantigen-specific T cell clones that were reactive to mutant neopeptides found in the tumor. These data support the hypothesis that the large proportion of mutant neoantigens in mismatch repair–deficient cancers make them sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade, regardless of the cancers’ tissue of origin.

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3,141 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Padmanee Sharma1, James P. Allison1Institutions (1)
03 Apr 2015-Science
TL;DR: The way forward for this class of novel agents lies in the ability to understand human immune responses in the tumor microenvironment, which will provide valuable information regarding the dynamic nature of the immune response and regulation of additional pathways that will need to be targeted through combination therapies to provide survival benefit for greater numbers of patients.

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Abstract: Immune checkpoint therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses, has led to important clinical advances and provided a new weapon against cancer. This therapy has elicited durable clinical responses and, in a fraction of patients, long-term remissions where patients exhibit no clinical signs of cancer for many years. The way forward for this class of novel agents lies in our ability to understand human immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. This will provide valuable information regarding the dynamic nature of the immune response and regulation of additional pathways that will need to be targeted through combination therapies to provide survival benefit for greater numbers of patients.

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2,761 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Apr 2015-Cancer Cell
TL;DR: The immune system recognizes and is poised to eliminate cancer but is held in check by inhibitory receptors and ligands, so drugs interrupting immune checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and others in early development, can unleash anti-tumor immunity and mediate durable cancer regressions.

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Abstract: The immune system recognizes and is poised to eliminate cancer but is held in check by inhibitory receptors and ligands. These immune checkpoint pathways, which normally maintain self-tolerance and limit collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses, can be co-opted by cancer to evade immune destruction. Drugs interrupting immune checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and others in early development, can unleash anti-tumor immunity and mediate durable cancer regressions. The complex biology of immune checkpoint pathways still contains many mysteries, and the full activity spectrum of checkpoint-blocking drugs, used alone or in combination, is currently the subject of intense study.

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2,447 citations


Network Information
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202222
20211,864
20201,622
20191,261
20181,002
2017853

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jedd D. Wolchok

57 papers, 6.6K citations

James P. Allison

37 papers, 7.8K citations

Jennifer A. Wargo

33 papers, 4.6K citations

Padmanee Sharma

33 papers, 8.4K citations

Taha Merghoub

31 papers, 2.3K citations