scispace - formally typeset

Topic

Immune system

About: Immune system is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 182892 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 7927623 citation(s).


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
24 Feb 2006-Cell
TL;DR: New insights into innate immunity are changing the way the way the authors think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity.
Abstract: Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune cells. Exposure of immune cells to the ligands of these receptors activates intracellular signaling cascades that rapidly induce the expression of a variety of overlapping and unique genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity.

9,733 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two types of cloned helper T cells are described, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokine synthesis are discussed.
Abstract: Effector functions in the immune system are carried out by a variety of cell types, and as our understanding of the complexity of the system expands, the number of recognized subdivisions of cell types also continues to increase. B lymphocytes, producing antibody, were initially distinguished from T lymphocytes, which provide help for B cells (1, 2). The T-cell population was further divided when surface markers allowed separation of helper cells from cytotoxic cells (3). Although there were persistent reports of heterogeneity in the helper T-cell compartment (reviewed below), only relatively recently were distinct types of helper cells resolved. In this review we describe the differences between two types of cloned helper T cells, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and we also discuss the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokines. Patterns of lymphokine synthesis are convenient and explicit markers to describe T-cell subclass differences, and evidence increases that many of the functions of helper T cells are predicted by the functions of the lymphokines that they synthesize after activation by antigen and presenting cells. The separation of many mouse helper T-cell clones into these two distinct types is now well established, but their origin in normal T-cell populations is still not clear. Further divisions of helper T cells may have to be recognized before a complete picture of helper T-cell function can be obtained.

7,693 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors helps to direct adaptive immune responses to antigens derived from microbial pathogens to distinguish infectious nonself from noninfectious self.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The innate immune system is a universal and ancient form of host defense against infection. Innate immune recognition relies on a limited number of germline-encoded receptors. These receptors evolved to recognize conserved products of microbial metabolism produced by microbial pathogens, but not by the host. Recognition of these molecular structures allows the immune system to distinguish infectious nonself from noninfectious self. Toll-like receptors play a major role in pathogen recognition and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to the activation of signaling pathways that result in the induction of antimicrobial genes and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, stimulation of Toll-like receptors triggers dendritic cell maturation and results in the induction of costimulatory molecules and increased antigen-presenting capacity. Thus, microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors helps to direct adaptive immune responses ...

7,595 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Mar 2010-Cell
TL;DR: The principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development are outlined and attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention are discussed.
Abstract: Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. This review outlines the principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development and discusses attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention.

7,334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent advances that have been made by research into the role of TLR biology in host defense and disease are described.
Abstract: The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as components that recognize conserved structures in pathogens has greatly advanced understanding of how the body senses pathogen invasion, triggers innate immune responses and primes antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Although TLRs are critical for host defense, it has become apparent that loss of negative regulation of TLR signaling, as well as recognition of self molecules by TLRs, are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, it is now clear that the interaction between TLRs and recently identified cytosolic innate immune sensors is crucial for mounting effective immune responses. Here we describe the recent advances that have been made by research into the role of TLR biology in host defense and disease.

6,635 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
T cell

109.5K papers, 5.5M citations

96% related
Antigen

170.2K papers, 6.9M citations

95% related
Cell culture

133.3K papers, 5.3M citations

90% related
Signal transduction

122.6K papers, 8.2M citations

89% related
Receptor

159.3K papers, 8.2M citations

87% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022127
202112,149
202010,949
20198,745
20188,135
20178,131