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Immunotherapy

About: Immunotherapy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 41475 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1605728 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Immunomodulation therapy.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC3239
Drew M. Pardoll1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Immune checkpoints refer to the plethora of inhibitory pathways that are crucial to maintaining self-tolerance. Tumour cells induce immune checkpoints to evade immunosurveillance. This Review discusses the progress in targeting immune checkpoints, the considerations for combinatorial therapy and the potential for additional immune-checkpoint targets.

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Topics: Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy (60%), Immune checkpoint (60%), Immunosurveillance (54%) ...read more

8,577 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.IMMUNOL.18.1.767
Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with a unique ability to induce primary immune responses. DCs capture and transfer information from the outside world to the cells of the adaptive immune system. DCs are not only critical for the induction of primary immune responses, but may also be important for the induction of immunological tolerance, as well as for the regulation of the type of T cell-mediated immune response. Although our understanding of DC biology is still in its infancy, we are now beginning to use DC-based immunotherapy protocols to elicit immunity against cancer and infectious diseases.

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6,548 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE13954
27 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune resistance) Here we show that pre-existing CD8(+) T cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy We analysed samples from 46 patients with metastatic melanoma obtained before and during anti-PD-1 therapy (pembrolizumab) using quantitative immunohistochemistry, quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, and next-generation sequencing for T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) In serially sampled tumours, patients responding to treatment showed proliferation of intratumoral CD8(+) T cells that directly correlated with radiographic reduction in tumour size Pre-treatment samples obtained from responding patients showed higher numbers of CD8-, PD-1- and PD-L1-expressing cells at the invasive tumour margin and inside tumours, with close proximity between PD-1 and PD-L1, and a more clonal TCR repertoire Using multivariate analysis, we established a predictive model based on CD8 expression at the invasive margin and validated the model in an independent cohort of 15 patients Our findings indicate that tumour regression after therapeutic PD-1 blockade requires pre-existing CD8(+) T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1/PD-L1-mediated adaptive immune resistance

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Topics: Acquired immune system (59%), Immunotherapy (58%), Immune system (57%) ...read more

4,022 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE14011
Roy S. Herbst1, Jean-Charles Soria2, Marcin Kowanetz3, Gregg Fine3  +18 moreInstitutions (9)
27 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune system. However, tumours are rarely rejected spontaneously, reflecting their ability to maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 or CD274), which is expressed on many cancer and immune cells, plays an important part in blocking the 'cancer immunity cycle' by binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 (CD80), both of which are negative regulators of T-lymphocyte activation. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptors suppresses T-cell migration, proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic mediators, and restricts tumour cell killing. The PD-L1-PD-1 axis protects the host from overactive T-effector cells not only in cancer but also during microbial infections. Blocking PD-L1 should therefore enhance anticancer immunity, but little is known about predictive factors of efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, activity and biomarkers of PD-L1 inhibition using the engineered humanized antibody MPDL3280A. Here we show that across multiple cancer types, responses (as evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1) were observed in patients with tumours expressing high levels of PD-L1, especially when PD-L1 was expressed by tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, responses were associated with T-helper type 1 (TH1) gene expression, CTLA4 expression and the absence of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in baseline tumour specimens. Together, these data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment.

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Topics: Cancer cell (58%), Immune system (58%), Cancer (58%) ...read more

3,477 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1076514
25 Oct 2002-Science
Abstract: We report here the adoptive transfer, to patients with metastatic melanoma, of highly selected tumor-reactive T cells directed against overexpressed self-derived differentiation antigens after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. This approach resulted in the persistent clonal repopulation of T cells in those cancer patients, with the transferred cells proliferating in vivo, displaying functional activity, and trafficking to tumor sites. This led to regression of the patients' metastatic melanoma as well as to the onset of autoimmune melanocyte destruction. This approach presents new possibilities for the treatment of patients with cancer as well as patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases.

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Topics: Adoptive cell transfer (59%), T cell (57%), Cancer (55%) ...read more

2,697 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202237
20214,612
20204,027
20193,214
20182,793
20172,432

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Steven A. Rosenberg

286 papers, 68.9K citations

Cliona M. Rooney

111 papers, 11.1K citations

Carl H. June

105 papers, 17.3K citations

Helen E. Heslop

91 papers, 9.5K citations

Malcolm K. Brenner

89 papers, 7.3K citations

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