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Immutability

About: Immutability is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 477 publications have been published within this topic receiving 5348 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Jackson Lears1
TL;DR: The Metaphysical Club as discussed by the authors was an informal group that met in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1872 to talk about ideas, and the one thing we know that came out of it was an idea - an idea about ideas.
Abstract: A riveting, original book about the creation of the modern American mind. The Metaphysical Club was an informal group that met in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1872, to talk about ideas. Its members included Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., founder of modern jurisprudence; William James, the father of modern American psychology; and Charles Sanders Peirce, logician, scientist, and the founder of semiotics. The Club was probably in existence for about nine months. No records were kept. The one thing we know that came out of it was an idea - an idea about ideas. This book is the story of that idea. Holmes, James, and Peirce all believed that ideas are not things "out there" waiting to be discovered but are tools people invent - like knives and forks and microchips - to make their way in the world. They thought that ideas are produced not by individuals, but by groups of individuals - that ideas are social. They do not develop according to some inner logic of their own but are entirely dependent - like germs - on their human carriers and environment. And they thought that the survival of any idea depends not on its immutability but on its adaptability. 'The Metaphysical Club' is written in the spirit of this idea about ideas. It is not a history of philosophy but an absorbing narrative about personalities and social history, a story about America. It begins with the American Civil War and ends with World War I. This is a book about the evolution of the American mind during the crucial period that formed the world we now inhabit.

397 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a pair of very important papers, namely "Space, Time and Individuals" (STI) in the Journal of Philosophy for October 1955 and "The Indestructibility and Immutability of Substances" (IIS) in Philosophical Studies for April 1956, Professor N. L. Wilson began something which badly needed beginning, namely the construction of a logically rigorous "substance-language" in which we talk about enduring and changing individuals as we do in common speech, as opposed to the "space-time" language favoured by very many mathematical logicians
Abstract: In a pair of very important papers, namely “Space, Time and Individuals” (STI) in the Journal of Philosophy for October 1955 and “The Indestructibility and Immutability of Substances” (IIS) in Philosophical Studies for April 1956, Professor N. L. Wilson began something which badly needed beginning, namely the construction of a logically rigorous “substance-language” in which we talk about enduring and changing individuals as we do in common speech, as opposed to the “space-time” language favoured by very many mathematical logicians, perhaps most notably by Quine. This enterprise of Wilson's is one with which I could hardly sympathize more heartily than I do; and one wishes for this logically rigorous “substance-language” not only when one is reading Quine but also when one is reading many other people. How fantastic it is, for instance, that Kotarbinski1 should call his metaphysics “Reism” when the very last kind of entity it has room for is things—instead of them it just has the world-lines or life-histories of things; “fourdimensional worms”, as Wilson says. Wilson, moreover, has at least one point of superiority to another rebel against space-time talk, P. F. Strawson; namely he (Wilson) does seriously attempt to meet formalism with formalism—to show that logical rigour is not a monopoly of the other side. At another point, however, Strawson seems to me to see further than Wilson; he (Strawson) is aware that substance-talk cannot be carried on without tenses, whereas Wilson tries (vainly, as I hope to show) to do without them. Wilson, in short, has indeed brought us out of Egypt; but as yet has us still wandering about the Sinai Peninsula; the Promised Land is a little further on than he has taken us.

220 citations

Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the implications of new technologies on contemporary culture, especially in their capacity to reconfigure the human body and to challenge our most fundamental understandings of human nature.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Microchips. Genetic modification of plants. Cloning. Exciting new discoveries in reproductive, genetic, and information technologies all serve to call into question the immutability of the boundaries between humans, animals, and machines. The category of the "posthuman" reflects the implications of such new technologies on contemporary culture, especially in their capacity to reconfigure the human body and to challenge our most fundamental understandings of human nature. Elaine L. Graham explores these issues as they are expressed within popular culture and the creative arts. From the myth of Prometheus and the Gothic horror of Frankenstein's monster to contemporary postmodern science fiction, a gallery of fantastic creatures haunts Western myth, religion, and literature. They serve to connect contemporary debates with enduring concerns about the potential -- and the limits -- of human creativity.

213 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an ethnographic study of the installation and maintenance of the Paris subway wayfinding system is presented, where Mol and Puig de la Bellacasa discuss and specify previous claims that highlight stability and immutability as crucial aspects of material ordering processes.
Abstract: Drawing on an ethnographic study of the installation and maintenance of Paris subway wayfinding system, this article attempts to discuss and specify previous claims that highlight stability and immutability as crucial aspects of material ordering processes. Though in designersʼ productions (guidelines, graphic manuals...), subway signs have been standardized and their consistency has been invested in to stabilize riders environment, they appear as fragile and transforming entities in the hands of maintenance workers. These two situated accounts are neither opposite nor paradoxical: they enact different versions of subway signs, the stabilization of which goes through the acknowledgment of their vulnerability. Practices that deal with material fragility are at the center of what authors propose, following Annemarie Mol and Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, to term a care of things. Foregrounding such a care of things is a way to surface a largely overlooked dimension of material ordering and to renew how maintainability issues are generally tackled.

143 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
12 Oct 2005
TL;DR: Improvements that are new in this paper include distinguishing the notions of assignability and mutability; integration with Java 5's generic types and with multi-dimensional arrays; a mutability polymorphism approach to avoiding code duplication; type-safe support for reflection and serialization; and formal type rules and type soundness proof for a core calculus.
Abstract: This paper describes a type system that is capable of expressing and enforcing immutability constraints. The specific constraint expressed is that the abstract state of the object to which an immutable reference refers cannot be modified using that reference. The abstract state is (part of) the transitively reachable state: that is, the state of the object and all state reachable from it by following references. The type system permits explicitly excluding fields from the abstract state of an object. For a statically type-safe language, the type system guarantees reference immutability. If the language is extended with immutability downcasts, then run-time checks enforce the reference immutability constraints.This research builds upon previous research in language support for reference immutability. Improvements that are new in this paper include distinguishing the notions of assignability and mutability; integration with Java 5's generic types and with multi-dimensional arrays; a mutability polymorphism approach to avoiding code duplication; type-safe support for reflection and serialization; and formal type rules and type soundness proof for a core calculus. Furthermore, it retains the valuable features of the previous dialect, including usability by humans (as evidenced by experience with 160,000 lines of Javari code) and interoperability with Java and existing JVMs.

134 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023172
2022325
202120
202036
201920
201827