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In situ polymerization

About: In situ polymerization is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5138 publications have been published within this topic receiving 150397 citations.


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TL;DR: In this article, a review of polymer nanocomposites with single-wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes is presented, and the current challenges to and opportunities for efficiently translating the extraordinary properties of carbon-nanotubes to polymer matrices are summarized.
Abstract: We review the present state of polymer nanocomposites research in which the fillers are single-wall or multiwall carbon nanotubes. By way of background we provide a brief synopsis about carbon nanotube materials and their suspensions. We summarize and critique various nanotube/polymer composite fabrication methods including solution mixing, melt mixing, and in situ polymerization with a particular emphasis on evaluating the dispersion state of the nanotubes. We discuss mechanical, electrical, rheological, thermal, and flammability properties separately and how these physical properties depend on the size, aspect ratio, loading, dispersion state, and alignment of nanotubes within polymer nanocomposites. Finally, we summarize the current challenges to and opportunities for efficiently translating the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrices in hopes of facilitating progress in this emerging area.

3,239 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of polymer-clay hybrid nanocomposites is provided with emphasis placed on the use of alkylammonium exchanged smectite clays as the reinforcement phase in selected polymer matrices as discussed by the authors.

2,403 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, chemically modified graphene and polyaniline (PANI) nanofiber composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of graphene oxide under acid conditions.
Abstract: Chemically modified graphene and polyaniline (PANI) nanofiber composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of graphene oxide under acid conditions. The obtained graphene oxide/PANI composites with different mass ratios were reduced to graphene using hydrazine followed by reoxidation and reprotonation of the reduced PANI to give the graphene/PANI nanocomposites. The morphology, composition, and electronic structure of the composites together with pure polyaniline fibers (PANI-F), graphene oxide (GO), and graphene (GR) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state 13C NMR, FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the chemically modified graphene and the PANI nanofibers formed a uniform nanocomposite with the PANI fibers absorbed on the graphene surface and/or filled between the graphene sheets. Such uniform structur...

2,025 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review recent progress and advances that have been made on: (a) dispersion of CNTs in a polymer matrix, including optimum blending, in situ polymerization and chemical functionalization; and (b) alignment of CNNs in the matrix enhanced by ex situ techniques, force and magnetic fields, electrospinning and liquid crystalline phase-induced methods.
Abstract: Polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are expected to have good processability characteristics of the polymer and excellent functional properties of the CNTs. The critical challenge, however, is how to enhance dispersion and alignment of CNTs in the matrix. Here, we review recent progress and advances that have been made on: (a) dispersion of CNTs in a polymer matrix, including optimum blending, in situ polymerization and chemical functionalization; and (b) alignment of CNTs in the matrix enhanced by ex situ techniques, force and magnetic fields, electrospinning and liquid crystalline phase-induced methods. In addition, discussions on mechanical, thermal, electrical, electrochemical, optical and super-hydrophobic properties; and applications of polymer/CNT composites are included. Enhanced dispersion and alignment of CNTs in the polymer matrix will promote and extend the applications and developments of polymer/CNT nanocomposites.

1,848 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared carbon sheets exfoliated from graphite oxide (GO) via two different processes: chemical modification (isocyanate treated GO, iGO) and thermal exfoliation (thermally reduced GO, TRG), and three different methods of dispersion: solvent blending, in situ polymerization, and melt compounding.
Abstract: Recently developed strategies for isolating single-layer carbon sheets from graphite have enabled production of electrically conductive, mechanically robust polymer nanocomposites with enhanced gas barrier performance at extremely low loading. In this article, we present processing, morphology, and properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) reinforced with exfoliated graphite. For the first time, we compare carbon sheets exfoliated from graphite oxide (GO) via two different processes: chemical modification (isocyanate treated GO, iGO) and thermal exfoliation (thermally reduced GO, TRG), and three different methods of dispersion: solvent blending, in situ polymerization, and melt compounding. Incorporation of as low as 0.5 wt % of TRG produced electrically conductive TPU. Up to a 10-fold increase in tensile stiffness and 90% decrease in nitrogen permeation of TPU were observed with only 3 wt % iGO, implying a high aspect ratio of exfoliated platelets. Real- and reciprocal-space morphological characteri...

1,269 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202353
2022163
2021228
2020263
2019268
2018295