About: In vivo is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 61382 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1935888 citation(s). The topic is also known as: in vivo.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A biopharmaceutics drug classification scheme for correlating in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability is proposed based on recognizing that drug dissolution and gastrointestinal permeability are the fundamental parameters controlling rate and extent of drug absorption.
Abstract: A biopharmaceutics drug classification scheme for correlating in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability is proposed based on recognizing that drug dissolution and gastrointestinal permeability are the fundamental parameters controlling rate and extent of drug absorption. This analysis uses a transport model and human permeability results for estimating in vivo drug absorption to illustrate the primary importance of solubility and permeability on drug absorption. The fundamental parameters which define oral drug absorption in humans resulting from this analysis are discussed and used as a basis for this classification scheme. These Biopharmaceutic Drug Classes are defined as: Case 1. High solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 2. Low solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 3. High solubility-low permeability drugs, and Case 4. Low solubility-low permeability drugs. Based on this classification scheme, suggestions are made for setting standards for in vitro drug dissolution testing methodology which will correlate with the in vivo process. This methodology must be based on the physiological and physical chemical properties controlling drug absorption. This analysis points out conditions under which no in vitro-in vivo correlation may be expected e.g. rapidly dissolving low permeability drugs. Furthermore, it is suggested for example that for very rapidly dissolving high solubility drugs, e.g. 85% dissolution in less than 15 minutes, a simple one point dissolution test, is all that may be needed to insure bioavailability. For slowly dissolving drugs a dissolution profile is required with multiple time points in systems which would include low pH, physiological pH, and surfactants and the in vitro conditions should mimic the in vivo processes. This classification scheme provides a basis for establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations and for estimating the absorption of drugs based on the fundamental dissolution and permeability properties of physiologic importance.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo andTLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition.
Abstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice. TLR2-deficient macrophages were hyporesponsive to several Gram-positive bacterial cell walls as well as Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. TLR4-deficient macrophages lacked the response to Gram-positive lipoteichoic acids. These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition.
TL;DR: Further data are obtained to support a role for TGF-beta as an intrinsic mediator of collagen formation: conditioned media obtained from activated human tonsillar T lymphocytes contain greatly elevated levels of T GF-beta compared tomedia obtained from unactivated lymphocytes.
Abstract: Transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta), when injected subcutaneously in newborn mice, causes formation of granulation tissue (induction of angiogenesis and activation of fibroblasts to produce collagen) at the site of injection. These effects occur within 2-3 days at dose levels than 1 microgram. Parallel in vitro studies show that TGF-beta causes marked increase of either proline or leucine incorporation into collagen in either an NRK rat fibroblast cell line or early passage human dermal fibroblasts. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) do not cause these same in vivo and in vitro effects; in both rat and human fibroblast cultures, EGF antagonizes the effects of TGF-beta on collagen formation. We have obtained further data to support a role for TGF-beta as an intrinsic mediator of collagen formation: conditioned media obtained from activated human tonsillar T lymphocytes contain greatly elevated levels of TGF-beta compared to media obtained from unactivated lymphocytes. These activated media markedly stimulate proline incorporation into collagen in NRK cells; this effect is blocked by a specific antibody to TGF-beta. The data are all compatible with the hypothesis that TGF-beta is an important mediator of tissue repair.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that Fc-receptor-dependent mechanisms contribute substantially to the action of cytotoxic antibodies against tumors and indicate that an optimal antibody against tumors would bind preferentially to activation Fc receptors and minimally to the inhibitory partner FcγRIIB.
Abstract: Inhibitory receptors have been proposed to modulate the in vivo cytotoxic response against tumor targets for both spontaneous and antibody-dependent pathways. Using a variety of syngenic and xenograft models, we demonstrate here that the inhibitory FcgammaRIIB molecule is a potent regulator of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vivo, modulating the activity of FcgammaRIII on effector cells. Although many mechanisms have been proposed to account for the anti-tumor activities of therapeutic antibodies, including extended half-life, blockade of signaling pathways, activation of apoptosis and effector-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we show here that engagement of Fcgamma receptors on effector cells is a dominant component of the in vivo activity of antibodies against tumors. Mouse monoclonal antibodies, as well as the humanized, clinically effective therapeutic agents trastuzumab (Herceptin(R)) and rituximab (Rituxan(R)), engaged both activation (FcgammaRIII) and inhibitory (FcgammaRIIB) antibody receptors on myeloid cells, thus modulating their cytotoxic potential. Mice deficient in FcgammaRIIB showed much more antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; in contrast, mice deficient in activating Fc receptors as well as antibodies engineered to disrupt Fc binding to those receptors were unable to arrest tumor growth in vivo. These results demonstrate that Fc-receptor-dependent mechanisms contribute substantially to the action of cytotoxic antibodies against tumors and indicate that an optimal antibody against tumors would bind preferentially to activation Fc receptors and minimally to the inhibitory partner FcgammaRIIB.
TL;DR: Recurrent treatments with LZ–huTRAIL actively suppressed growth of the TRAIL–sensitive human mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MDA–231 in CB.17 (SCID) mice, and histologic examination of tumors from SCID mice treated with Lz–hu TRAIL demonstrated clear areas of apoptotic necrosis within 9–12 hours of injection.
Abstract: To evaluate the utility of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a cancer therapeutic, we created leucine zipper (LZ) forms of human (hu) and murine (mu) TRAIL to promote and stabilize the formation of trimers. Both were biologically active, inducing apoptosis of both human and murine target cells in vitro with similar specific activities. In contrast to the fulminant hepatotoxicity of LZ-huCD95L in vivo, administration of either LZ-huTRAIL or LZ-muTRAIL did not seem toxic to normal tissues of mice. Finally, repeated treatments with LZ-huTRAIL actively suppressed growth of the TRAIL-sensitive human mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-231 in CB.17 (SCID) mice, and histologic examination of tumors from SCID mice treated with LZ-huTRAIL demonstrated clear areas of apoptotic necrosis within 9-12 hours of injection.
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