Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine
About: Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 549 publications have been published within this topic receiving 13139 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is suggested that adoption of a sequential vaccination schedule (inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by OPV) would be effective in decreasing the risk of VAPP while retaining the proven public health benefits of OPV.
Abstract: Poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus has been virtually nonexistent in the United States since 1980, and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) has emerged as the predominant form of the disease. We reviewed national surveillance data on poliomyelitis for 1960-1989 to assess the changing risks of wild-virus, vaccine-associated, and imported paralytic disease; we also sought to characterize the epidemiology of poliomyelitis for the period 1980-1989. The risk of VAPP has remained exceedingly low but stable since the mid-1960s, with approximately 1 case occurring per 2.5 million doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) distributed during 1980-1989. Since 1980 no indigenous cases of wild-virus disease, 80 cases of VAPP, and five cases of imported disease have been reported in the United States. Three distinct groups are at risk of vaccine-associated disease: recipients of OPV (usually infants receiving their first dose), persons in contact with OPV recipients (mostly unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated adults), and immunologically abnormal individuals. Overall, 93% of cases in OPV recipients and 76% of vaccine-associated cases have been related to administration of the first or second dose of OPV. Our findings suggest that adoption of a sequential vaccination schedule (inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by OPV) would be effective in decreasing the risk of VAPP while retaining the proven public health benefits of OPV.
TL;DR: The change in polio vaccination policy from OPV to exclusive use of IPV was successfully implemented and led to the elimination of VAPP in the United States.
Abstract: Context The last case of poliomyelitis in the United States due to indigenously acquired wild poliovirus occurred in 1979; however, as a consequence of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) use that began in 1961, an average of 9 cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) were confirmed each year from 1961 through 1989. To reduce the VAPP burden, national vaccination policy changed in 1997 from reliance on OPV to options for a sequential schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) followed by OPV. In 2000, an exclusive IPV schedule was adopted.
TL;DR: IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed.
Abstract: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5–30 days after a “challenge” dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.24)). In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59–1.11]) or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82–1.58]). There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.
TL;DR: Impaired herd immunity to the epidemic strain of poliovirus type 3, which differed from the type 3 vaccine strains in both immunological and molecular properties, was important in the emergence of this outbreak.
TL;DR: Outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by VDPV have recently occurred in communities with long-term incomplete immunisation coverage, and financial and logistical barriers to replace OPV with IPV remain.
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