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Indirect costs

About: Indirect costs is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8800 publications have been published within this topic receiving 298458 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings indicate CVD prevalence and costs are projected to increase substantially and effective prevention strategies are needed if the authors are to limit the growing burden of CVD.
Abstract: Background—Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and is responsible for 17% of national health expenditures. As the population ages, these costs are expected to increase substantially. Methods and Results—To prepare for future cardiovascular care needs, the American Heart Association developed methodology to project future costs of care for hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all other CVD from 2010 to 2030. This methodology avoided double counting of costs for patients with multiple cardiovascular conditions. By 2030, 40.5% of the US population is projected to have some form of CVD. Between 2010 and 2030, real (2008$) total direct medical costs of CVD are projected to triple, from $273 billion to $818 billion. Real indirect costs (due to lost productivity) for all CVD are estimated to increase from $172 billion in 2010 to $276 billion in 2030, an increase of 61%. Conclusions—These findings indicate CVD prevalence and costs are project...

2,918 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The estimated prevalence and cost of care for HF will increase markedly because of aging of the population and strategies to prevent HF and improve the efficiency of care are needed.
Abstract: Background—Heart failure (HF) is an important contributor to both the burden and cost of national healthcare expenditures, with more older Americans hospitalized for HF than for any other medical condition. With the aging of the population, the impact of HF is expected to increase substantially. Methods and Results—We estimated future costs of HF by adapting a methodology developed by the American Heart Association to project the epidemiology and future costs of HF from 2012 to 2030 without double counting the costs attributed to comorbid conditions. The model assumes that HF prevalence will remain constant by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and that rising costs and technological innovation will continue at the same rate. By 2030, >8 million people in the United States (1 in every 33) will have HF. Between 2012 and 2030, real (2010$) total direct medical costs of HF are projected to increase from $21 billion to $53 billion. Total costs, including indirect costs for HF, are estimated to increase from $31 bil...

2,189 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review did not identify any studies estimating the total costs of LBP in the United States from a societal perspective, but such studies may be helpful in determining appropriate allocation of health-care resources devoted to this condition.

1,809 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Mar 1999-BMJ
TL;DR: The health sector has had its main impact in the area of dementia by providing skills and expertise necessary for comprehensive, holistic assessments, but Kitwood challenges this medical model.
Abstract: Tom Kitwood Open University Press, £14.95, pp 176 ISBN 0335198554 ![][1] Rating: ![Graphic][2] The burden of dementia is borne not only by people with dementia, but by their carers, both informal and professional. The major direct financial costs are managed by the welfare sector, through the provision of community services and residential care, whereas indirect costs are largely attributed to informal carers. Advances in care practices would be of considerable benefit. The health sector has had its main impact in the area of dementia by providing skills and expertise necessary for comprehensive, holistic assessments. Kitwood challenges this medical model, which he labels as … [1]: /embed/graphic-1.gif [2]: /embed/inline-graphic-1.gif

1,719 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jun 2007-Vaccine
TL;DR: The results highlight the enormous annual burden of influenza in the US, with hospitalization costs and lost productivity from missed work days and lost lives comprise the bulk of the economic burden.

1,667 citations

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