Topic

# Inertia

About: Inertia is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12006 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 164291 citation(s).

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider structural inertia in organizational populations as an outcome of an ecological-evolutionary process and define structural inertia as a correspondence between a class of organizations and their environments.

Abstract: Considers structural inertia in organizational populations as an outcome of an ecological-evolutionary process. Structural inertia is considered to be a consequence of selection as opposed to a precondition. The focus of this analysis is on the timing of organizational change. Structural inertia is defined to be a correspondence between a class of organizations and their environments. Reliably producing collective action and accounting rationally for their activities are identified as important organizational competencies. This reliability and accountability are achieved when the organization has the capacity to reproduce structure with high fidelity. Organizations are composed of various hierarchical layers that vary in their ability to respond and change. Organizational goals, forms of authority, core technology, and marketing strategy are the four organizational properties used to classify organizations in the proposed theory. Older organizations are found to have more inertia than younger ones. The effect of size on inertia is more difficult to determine. The variance in inertia with respect to the complexity of organizational arrangements is also explored. (SRD)

6,123 citations

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1,177 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the first law of thermodynamics is a scalar equation, and not the fourth component of the energy-momentum principle, and temperature and entropy also prove to be scalars.

Abstract: The considerations of the first paper of this series are modified so as to be consistent with the special theory of relativity. It is shown that the inertia of energy does not obviate the necessity for assuming the conservation of matter. Matter is to be interpreted as number of molecules, therefore, and not as inertia. Its velocity vector serves to define local proper-time axes, and the energy momentum tensor is resolved into proper-time and -space components. It is shown that the first law of thermodynamics is a scalar equation, and not the fourth component of the energy-momentum principle. Temperature and entropy also prove to be scalars. Simple relativistic generalizations of Fourier's law of heat conduction, and of the laws of viscosity are obtained from the requirements of the second law. The same considerations lead directly to the accepted relativistic form of Ohm's law.

1,151 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that if the waves down neighbouring tails are in phase, very much less energy is dissipated in the fluid between them than when the waves are in opposite phase.

Abstract: Large objects which propel themselves in air or water make use of inertia in the surrounding fluid. The propulsive organ pushes the fluid backwards, while the resistance of the body gives the fluid a forward momentum. The forward and backward momenta exactly balance, but the propulsive organ and the resistance can be thought about as acting separately. This conception cannot be transferred to problems of propulsion in microscopic bodies for which the stresses due to viscosity may be many thousands of times as great as those due to inertia. No case of self-propulsion in a viscous fluid due to purely viscous forces seems to have been discussed. The motion of a fluid near a sheet down which waves of lateral displacement are propagated is described. It is found that the sheet moves forwards at a rate 2π 2 b 2 /λ 2 times the velocity of propagation of the waves. Here b is the amplitude and λ the wave-length. This analysis seems to explain how a propulsive tail can move a body through a viscous fluid without relying on reaction due to inertia. The energy dissipation and stress in the tail are also calculated. The work is extended to explore the reaction between the tails of two neighbouring small organisms with propulsive tails. It is found that if the waves down neighbouring tails are in phase very much less energy is dissipated in the fluid between them than when the waves are in opposite phase. It is also found that when the phase of the wave in one tail lags behind that in the other there is a strong reaction, due to the viscous stress in the fluid between them, which tends to force the two wave trains into phase. It is in fact observed that the tails of spermatozoa wave in unison when they are close to one another and pointing the same way.

966 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Stokeslet strength density of a rigid body is estimated to be independent of the body shape and is of order μUe, where U is a measure of the undisturbed velocity and e = (log 2l/R0)−1.

Abstract: A rigid body whose length (2l) is large compared with its breadth (represented by R0) is straight but is otherwise of arbitrary shape. It is immersed in fluid whose undisturbed velocity, at the position of the body and relative to it, may be either uniform, corresponding to translational motion of the body, parallel or perpendicular to the body length, or a linear function of distance along the body length, corresponding to an ambient pure straining motion or to rotational motion of the body. Inertia forces are negligible. It is possible to represent the body approximately by a distribution of Stokeslets over a line enclosed by the body; and then the resultant force required to sustain translational motion, the net stresslet strength in a straining motion, and the resultant couple required to sustain rotational motion, can all be calculated. In the first approximation the Stokeslet strength density F(x) is independent of the body shape and is of order μUe, where U is a measure of the undisturbed velocity and e = (log 2l/R0)−1. In higher approximations, F(x) depends on both the body cross-section and the way in which it varies along the length. From an investigation of the ‘inner’ flow field near one section of the body, and the condition that it should join smoothly with the ‘outer’ flow which is determined by the body as a whole, it is found that a given shape and size of the local cross-section is equivalent, in all cases of longitudinal relative motion, to a circle of certain radius, and, in all cases of transverse relative motion, to an ellipse of certain dimensions and orientation. The equivalent circle and the equivalent ellipse may be found from certain boundary-value problems for the harmonic and biharmonic equations respectively. The perimeter usually provides a better measure of the magnitude of the effect of a non-circular shape of a cross-section than its area. Explicit expressions for the various integral force parameters correct to the order of e2 are presented, together with iterative relations which allow their determination to the order of any power of e. For a body which is ‘longitudinally elliptic’ and has uniform cross-sectional shape, the force parameters are given explicitly to the order of any power of e, and, for a cylindrical body, to the order of e3.

914 citations