Topic

# Inertial wave

About: Inertial wave is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1710 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 40906 citation(s).

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Abstract: Rossby waves play a critical role in the transient adjustment of ocean circulation to changes in large-scale atmospheric forcing. The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter has detected Rossby waves throughout much of the world ocean from sea level signals with ≲10-centimeter amplitude and ≳500-kilometer wavelength. Outside of the tropics, Rossby waves are abruptly amplified by major topographic features. Analysis of 3 years of data reveals discrepancies between observed and theoretical Rossby wave phase speeds that indicate that the standard theory for free, linear Rossby waves is an incomplete description of the observed waves.

726 citations

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Abstract: The ocean circulation is a cause and consequence of fluid scale interactions ranging from millimeters to more than 10,000 km. Although the wind field produces a large energy input to the ocean, all but approximately 10% appears to be dissipated within about 100 m of the sea surface, rendering observations of the energy divergence necessary to maintain the full water-column flow difficult. Attention thus shifts to the physically different kinetic energy (KE) reservoirs of the circulation and their maintenance, dissipation, and possible influence on the very small scales representing irreversible molecular mixing. Oceanic KE is dominated by the geostrophic eddy field, and depending on the vertical structure (barotropic versus low-mode baroclinic), direct and inverse energy cascades are possible. The pathways toward dissipation of the dominant geostrophic eddy KE depend crucially on the direction of the cascade but are difficult to quantify because of serious observational difficulties for wavelengths shorte...

590 citations

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Abstract: A simple model is given that describes the response of the upper ocean to an imposed wind stress. The stress drives both mean and turbulent flow near the surface, which is taken to mix thoroughly a layer of depth h, and to erode the stably stratified fluid below. A marginal stability criterion based on a Froude number is used to close the problem, and it is suggested that the mean momentum has a strong role in the mixing process. The initial deepening is predicted to obey where u. is the friction velocity of the imposed stress, N the ambient buoyancy frequency, and t the time. After one-half inertial period the deepening is arrested by rotadeon at a depth h = 22/4 u.{(Nf)+ where f is the Coriolis frequency. The flow is then a “mixed Ekman” layer, with strong inertial oscillations superimposed on it. Three quarters of the mean energy of the deepening layer is found to be kinetic, and only one-quarter potential. Heating and cooling are included in the model, but stress dominates for time-scales of ...

586 citations

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Abstract: An approximate dispersion relation for near-inertial internal waves propagating in geostrophic shear is formulated that includes straining by the mean flow shear. Near-inertial and geostrophic motions have similar horizontal scales in the ocean. This implies that interaction terms involving mean flow shear of the form (v·Δ)V as well as the mean flow itself [(V·Δ)v] must be retained in the equations of motion. The vorticity ζ shifts the lower bound of the internal waveband from the planetary value of the Coriolis frequency f to an effective Coriolis frequency feπ = f + ζ/2. A ray tracing approach is adopted to examine the propagation behavior of near-inertial waves in a model geostrophic jet. Trapping and amplification occur in regions of negative vorticity where near-inertial waves' intrinsic frequency &omega0 can be less than the effective Coriolis frequency of the surrounding ocean. Intense downward-propagating near-inertial waves have been observed at the base of upper ocean negative vorticity...

554 citations

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Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the varied physical circumstances in which interactions among water waves and currents occur. Different mathematical approaches, relevant observations, and experiments that are applicable to all or some of these physical circumstances are described. The emphasis is on waves and their interaction with preexisting currents rather than on wave-generated currents. Common simplifying assumption is that the waves are of sufficiently small amplitude for the free-surface boundary conditions to be linearized and evaluated at, or close to, the mean free surface. Most progress can be made in this subject with such a constraint, but wherever possible, finite-amplitude effects are discussed. Unlike some other common forms of wave motion, water waves involve water motion varying with direction perpendicular to the space in which they propagate. The chapter concludes on the interaction of waves generated by a ship with the flow around it.

513 citations