Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia
About: Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 37 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1403 citations.
TL;DR: It is reported that mtDNA replication disorders caused by TWINKLE mutations-mitochondrial myopathy (MM) and infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA)-remodel cellular dNTP pools in mice are reported and targets for metabolic therapy are offered.
Abstract: Summary Mitochondrial dysfunction affects cellular energy metabolism, but less is known about the consequences for cytoplasmic biosynthetic reactions. We report that mtDNA replication disorders caused by TWINKLE mutations—mitochondrial myopathy (MM) and infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA)—remodel cellular dNTP pools in mice. MM muscle shows tissue-specific induction of the mitochondrial folate cycle, purine metabolism, and imbalanced and increased dNTP pools, consistent with progressive mtDNA mutagenesis. IOSCA-TWINKLE is predicted to hydrolyze dNTPs, consistent with low dNTP pools and mtDNA depletion in the disease. MM muscle also modifies the cytoplasmic one-carbon cycle, transsulfuration, and methylation, as well as increases glucose uptake and its utilization for de novo serine and glutathione biosynthesis. Our evidence indicates that the mitochondrial replication machinery communicates with cytoplasmic dNTP pools and that upregulation of glutathione synthesis through glucose-driven de novo serine biosynthesis contributes to the metabolic stress response. These results are important for disorders with primary or secondary mtDNA instability and offer targets for metabolic therapy.
TL;DR: The severe neurological phenotype observed in IOSCA, a result of only a single amino acid substitution in Twinkle and Twinky, suggests that these proteins play a crucial role in the maintenance and/or function of specific affected neuronal subpopulations.
Abstract: Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) (MIM 271245) is a severe autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive atrophy of the cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord and sensory axonal neuropathy. We report here the molecular background of this disease based on the positional cloning/candidate approach of the defective gene. Having established the linkage to chromosome 10q24, we restricted the critical DNA region using single nucleotide polymorphism-based haplotypes. After analyzing all positional candidate transcripts, we identified two point mutations in the gene C10orf2 encoding Twinkle, a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA)-specific helicase, and a rarer splice variant Twinky, underlying IOSCA. The founder IOSCA mutation, homozygous in all but one of the patients, leads to a Y508C amino acid change in the polypeptides. One patient, heterozygous for Y508C, carries a silent coding region cytosine to thymine transition mutation in his paternal disease chromosome. This allele is expressed at a reduced level, causing the preponderance of messenger RNAs encoding Y508C polypeptides and thus leads to the IOSCA disease phenotype. Previously, we have shown that different mutations in this same gene cause autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) with multiple mtDNA deletions (MIM 606075), a neuromuscular disorder sharing a spectrum of symptoms with IOSCA. IOSCA phenotype is the first recessive one due to Twinkle and Twinky mutations, the dominant PEO mutations affecting mtDNA maintenance, but in IOSCA, mtDNA stays intact. The severe neurological phenotype observed in IOSCA, a result of only a single amino acid substitution in Twinkle and Twinky, suggests that these proteins play a crucial role in the maintenance and/or function of specific affected neuronal subpopulations.
TL;DR: It is shown that recessive mutations of the close functional partner of the polymerase, the Twinkle helicase, can also manifest as early encephalopathy with liver involvement, a phenotype reminiscent of Alpers syndrome, and are a new genetic cause underlying tissue-specific mtDNA depletion.
Abstract: Twinkle is a mitochondrial replicative helicase, the mutations of which have been associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), and recessively inherited infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). We report here a new phenotype in two siblings with compound heterozygous Twinkle mutations (A318T and Y508C), characterized by severe early onset encephalopathy and signs of liver involvement. The clinical manifestations included hypotonia, athetosis, sensory neuropathy, ataxia, hearing deficit, ophthalmoplegia, intractable epilepsy and elevation of serum transaminases. The liver showed mtDNA depletion, whereas the muscle mtDNA was only slightly affected. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome has previously been associated with mutations of polymerase gamma, a replicative polymerase of mtDNA. We show here that recessive mutations of the close functional partner of the polymerase, the Twinkle helicase, can also manifest as early encephalopathy with liver involvement, a phenotype reminiscent of Alpers syndrome, and are a new genetic cause underlying tissue-specific mtDNA depletion.
TL;DR: The results indicate that IOSCA is a new member of the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes, and the lack of in vitro helicase defect or cell culture phenotype suggest that Twinkle-Y508C dysfunction affects mtDNA maintenance in a highly context and cell-type specific manner.
Abstract: Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by the recessive mutation in PEO1, leading to an Y508C change in the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle, in its helicase domain. However, no mitochondrial dysfunction has been found in this disease. We studied here the consequences of IOSCA for the central nervous system, as well as the in vitro performance of the IOSCA mutant protein. The results of the mtDNA analyses were compared to findings in a similar juvenile or adult-onset ataxia syndrome, mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS), caused by the W748S mutation in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (POLG). We show here that IOSCA brain does not harbor mtDNA deletions or increased amount of mtDNA point mutations, whereas MIRAS brain shows multiple deletions of mtDNA. However, IOSCA, and to a lesser extent also MIRAS, show mtDNA depletion in the brain and the liver. In both diseases, especially large neurons show respiratory chain complex I (CI) deficiency, but also CIV is decreased in IOSCA. Helicase activity, hexamerization and nucleoid structure of the IOSCA mutant were, however, unaffected. The lack of in vitro helicase defect or cell culture phenotype suggest that Twinkle-Y508C dysfunction affects mtDNA maintenance in a highly context and cell-type specific manner. Our results indicate that IOSCA is a new member of the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes.
TL;DR: The objective of this study was to describe the development and progression of encephalopathy in infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia syndrome, and compare the pathognomonic features with those in other mitochondrial encephalopathies.
Abstract: The C10orf2 gene encodes the mitochondrial DNA helicase Twinkle, which is one of the proteins important for mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Dominant mutations cause multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions and progressive external ophthalmoplegia, but recent findings associate recessive mutations with mitochondrial DNA depletion and encephalopathy or hepatoencephalopathy. The latter clinical phenotypes resemble those associated with recessive POLG1 mutations. We have previously described patients with infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (MIM271245) caused either by homozygous (Y508C) or compound heterozygous (Y508C and A318T) Twinkle mutations. Our earlier reports focused on the spinocerebellar degeneration, but the 20-year follow-up of 23 patients has shown that refractory status epilepticus, migraine-like headaches and severe psychiatric symptoms are also pathognomonic for the disease. All adolescent patients have experienced phases of severe migraine, and seven patients had antipsychotic medication. Epilepsia partialis continua occurred in 15 patients leading to generalized epileptic statuses in 13 of them. Eight of these patients have died. Valproate treatment was initiated on two patients, but had to be discontinued because of a severe elevation of liver enzymes. The patients recovered, and we have not used valproate in infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia since. The first status epilepticus manifested between 15 and 34 years of age in the homozygotes, and at 2 and 4 years in the compound heterozygotes. The epileptic statuses lasted from several days to weeks. Focal, stroke-like lesions were seen in magnetic resonance imaging, but in infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia these lesions showed no predilection. They varied from resolving small cortical to large hemispheric oedematous lesions, which reached from cerebral cortex to basal ganglia and thalamus and caused permanent necrotic damage and brain atrophy. Brain atrophy with focal laminar cortical necrosis and hippocampal damage was confirmed on neuropathological examination. The objective of our study was to describe the development and progression of encephalopathy in infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia syndrome, and compare the pathognomonic features with those in other mitochondrial encephalopathies.
Related Topics (5)